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2018年12月大学英语四级阅读200篇第193篇:生活中三种疲劳

2018-09-14 16:37:57 来源:网络四级资料下载

  2018年12月大学英语四级阅读200篇汇总

  Three Kinds of Fatigue

  Fatigue is one of the most common complaints brought to doctors, friends, and relatives. You'd think in this era of labor-saving devices and convenient transportation that few people would have reason to be so tired. But probably more people complain of fatigue today than in the days when hay was baled by hand and laundry scrubbed on a washboard.

  The causes of modern-day fatigue are diverse and only rarely related to excessive physical exertion. The relatively few people who do heavy labor all day long almost never complain about being tired, perhaps because they expect to be. Today, physicians report, tiredness is more likely a consequence of under-exertion than of wearing yourself down with over-activity. In fact, increased physical activity is often prescribed as a cure for lowering energy.

  Physical. This is the well-known result of overworking your muscles to the point where metabolic (新成代谢的) waste products—carbon dioxide and lactic acid (乳酸)—accumulate in our blood and reduce your strength. Your muscles can't continue to work efficiently in a bath of these chemicals. Physical fatigue is usually a pleasant tiredness, such as that which you might experience after playing a hard set of tennis, chopping wood, or climbing a mountain. The cure is simple and fast: You rest, giving your body a chance to get rid of accumulated wastes and restore muscle fuel.

  Pathological (病理的). Here fatigue is a warning sign or consequence of some underlying physical disorder, perhaps the common cold or flu or something more serious like diabetes or cancer. Usually other symptoms besides fatigue are present that suggest the true cause.

  Even after an illness has passed, you're likely to feel dragged out for a week or more. Take your fatigue as a signal to go slow while your body has a chance to recover fully even if all you had was a cold. Pushing yourself to resume full activity too soon could lead to a relapse (旧病复发) and almost certainly will prolong our period of fatigue.

  Even though illness is not frequent cause of prolonged fatigue, it's very important that it not be overlooked. Therefore, anyone who feels drained of energy for weeks on end should have a thorough physical check-up. But even if nothing shows up as a result of the various medical tests, that doesn't mean there's nothing wrong with you.

  Psychological. Emotional problems and conflicts, especially depression and anxiety, are by far the most common causes of prolonged fatigue. Fatigue may represent a defence mechanism that prevents you from having to face the true cause of your depression, such as the fact that you hate your job. It is also your body's safety mechanism for expressing repressed emotional conflicts, such as feeling trapped in an ungrateful role or an unhappy marriage. When such feelings are not expressed openly, they often come out as physical symptoms, with fatigue as one of the most common manifestations. "Many people who are extremely fatigued don't even know they're depressed," Dr. Bulette says. "They're so busy distracting themselves or just worrying about being tired that they don't recognize their depression. "

  There is a great deal you can do on your own to deal with both severe prolonged fatigue and those periodic washed-out feelings. Vitamins and tranquilizers (镇静剂 ) are almost never the right answer, sleeping pills and alcohol are counterproductive, and caffeine is at best a temporary solution that can backfire with abuse and cause life-disrupting symptoms of anxiety. Instead, you might try: Diet

  If you eat a small breakfast or none at all, you're likely to experience mid-morning fatigue, the result of a drop in blood sugar, which your body and brain depend on for energy. For peak energy in the morning, be sure to eat a proper breakfast, low in sugar and fairly high in protein, which will provide a steady supply of blood sugar throughout the morning. Coffee and a doughnut are almost worse than nothing, providing a brief boost and then letting you down with a thud. Exercise

  Contrary to what you may think, exercise enhances, rather than saps, energy. Regular conditioning exercises, such as jogging, cycling, or swimming, help you to resist fatigue by increasing your body's ability to handle more of a work load. You get tired less quickly because your capability is greater.

  Exercise also has a well-recognized tranquilizing effect, which helps you work in a more relaxed fashion and be less dragged down by the tensions of your day. At the end of a day exercise can relieve accumulated tensions, give you more energy in the evening, and help you sleep more restfully.

  Sleep

  If you know you're tired because you haven't been getting enough sleep, the solution is simple: Get to bed earlier. There's no right amount of sleep for everyone, and generally sleep requirements decline with age. Find the amount that suits you best, and aim for it. Insomnia(失眠) and other sleep disorders should not be treated with sleeping pills, alcohol, or tranquilizers, which can actually make the problem worse.

  Know yourself

  Try to schedule your most difficult jobs for the time of day when you're at your peak. Some are "morning people" who tire by mid-afternoon; others do their best work in the evening. Don't overextend yourself, trying to climb the ladder of success at a record pace or to meet everyone's demands or expectations. Decide what you want to do and what you can handle comfortably, and learn to say no to additional requests. Recognize your energy cycles and plan accordingly. Many women have a low point premenstrually, during which time extra sleep may be needed and demanding activities are particularly exhausting. , Take breaks

  No matter how interesting or demanding you work, you'll be able to do it with more vigor if now and again you stop, stretch, and change the scenery. Instead of coffee and a sweet roll on your break, try meditation, yoga, callisthenics(健美操) , or a brisk walk. Even running up and down the staircase can provide refreshment from a sedentary(久坐的) job. If your job is physically demanding, relax in a quiet place for a while. The do-something-different rule also applies to vacation; "getting away from it all" for a week or two or longer can be highly revitalizing, helping you to put things in perspective and enabling you to take your job more in stride upon your return.

  1. According to the passage, it is hard for people to find causes of tiredness when they are leading a comfortable and convenient life.

  2. Causes of certain types of fatigue are discussed and some suggestions are put forward in the passage.

  3. Most people don't want to talk about their unhappy feelings with others.

  4. Physical fatigue is good because it brings us a lot of pleasure.

  5. Psychological fatigue is the likely response of our body to emotional problems and conflicts.

  6. Coffee and a doughnut make the satisfying breakfast as they provide people with the desired energy.

  7. When you have a prolonged fatigue, it is necessary to have a thorough physical check-

  up even if there is nothing wrong with you.

  8. No matter how interesting or demanding your work, you need to______.

  9. From the passage, it can be seen that the author's attitudes towards the approach to dealing with modern-fatigue is______.

  10. According to physicians' report, tiredness more probably results from______.

  答案:1. N 2. Y 3. NG 4. N 5. Y 6. N 7. N 8. take breaks 9. positive 10. under-exertion

  2018年12月大学英语四级阅读200篇汇总

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