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2018年12月大学英语四级听力美文第12篇:Leisure and Boredom

2018-11-08 11:36:00 来源:网络四级资料下载

  新东方在线英语四级频道为备考英语四级的同学们整理了英语四级听力美文,希望可以为大家带来帮助,一起来看看吧。

  2018年12月大学英语四级听力美文100篇

  英语四级听力美文第12篇:Leisure and Boredom

  Technology and the division of labour have done two things: by eliminating in many fields theneed for special strength or skill, they have made a very large number of paid occupationswhich formerly were enjoyable work into boring labour, and by increasing productivity theyhave reduced the number of necessary labouring of the population, that is to say, itslabourers, will have almost as much leisure as in earlier times was enjoyed by the aristocracy.

  It seems interesting and relaxing good news at the first sight, but when one recalls howaristocracies in the past actually behaved, the prospect is not cheerful.

  The past aristocracies invented a lot of activities to make fun out of boredom, however, theproblem of dealing with boredom may be even more difficult for such a future mass societythan it was for aristocracies. The latter, for example, ritualized their time; there was a season toshoot grouse, a season to spend in town, a season to hold a lot of parties, etc.

  The masses are more likely to replace an unchanging ritual by fashion which it will be in theeconomic interest of certain people to change as often as possible.

  Again, the masses cannot go in for hunting, for very soon there would be no animals left tohunt. For other aristocratic amusements like gambling, dueling, and warfare, it may be onlytoo easy to find equivalents in dangerous driving, drug-taking, and senseless acts of violence. Workers seldom commit acts of violence, because they can put their aggression into theirwork, be it physical like the work of a smith, or mental like the work of a scientist or an artist. The role of aggression in mental work is aptly expressed by the phrase “getting one’s teethinto a problem”.

  2018年12月大学英语四级听力美文100篇

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