英语四级阅读短期备考攻略:仔细阅读

2012-04-16 00:00:00来源:网络

距离2012年6月四六级考试越来越近,现在正是四六级考生复习冲刺的黄金时期。为了助大家取得好成绩,新东方在线四六级频道为考生网罗了四六级辅导名师,整合了各题型备考资料,给你一站式学习体验。
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  一、模考

  完整的模考应该包含写作,严格按照考试流程,这样你才能更完整的体会到考试的强度,并通过多次的模考来适应这样的强度,尤其是阅读项目。在听力项目之后,10:35—11:20的45分钟时间内,要完成一篇选词填空、两篇深度阅读、一篇完形填空和五道中译英题,这其中的两项阅读内容的考察(一篇选词填空+两篇深度阅读)的分值比例占到了25%,尤其是深度阅读的10道题,每题都达到了惊人的2分。可以说,阅读项目的拿分情况就决定了最后的考试结果。通常情况下选词填空的完成时间为6分钟,每篇深度阅读的完成时间为9分钟。通过模考,你可以认识到自己的做题速度与正确率,能在考试中合理分配时间精力,并且找到自身的薄弱环节,在最后的复习时间中有针对性的来提升。

  二、词汇

  词汇是阅读的基础,经过从开学到11月底这两个多月的复习,同学们在单词量上有了一定的积累与提升,在最后的半个月时间中应该做查缺补漏的工作。因为四级考试中的单词重复率很高,所以在历年试题中出现过而你却不认识的单词最应当受到关注。在近5年的真题中从这三个方位查找自己不认识的单词重点记背,它们分别是:1.听力的原文和选项;2.完形填空和选词填空的选项;3.完形填空和仔细阅读(不包含快速阅读)的文章。在四级考试的阅读文章中会出现3%的超纲词,而给出中文注释的只有一两个,所以无论是在平时的练习中还是在考试中,同学们都不要执着于必须要看懂每一个单词,但一定要把历年曾经反复考过的重点词汇掌握,这些词就已经可以帮助我们读懂文章了。

  三、深度阅读

  仅仅在做完文章之后对一下答案并不能提升水平,在最后的复习时间中应该利用近5年中已经做过的真题进行精细的总结,只有在总结中才能破解出题人的思路,找到自身的问题所在。因此,表面看起来总结是一件费时费力的事情,但却是最行之有效提升水平的方法。

  以下内容将会从阅读项目常考的3大题型入手来进行讲解,同学们可以在总结中来借鉴:

  1、主旨题:考察对文章中心思想的把握

  标志词:mainly about、purpose、title

  解答主旨题关键抓两点:主题词、主题句。

  主旨题正确选项的特点:包含主题词,对文章主题句的同义改写。

  (1)主题词是全文中心讨论的事物。综合全文,尤其是在每个段落的开头,反复重现的成分,往往是一个名词或名词词组,那就是主题词。而主旨题的正确选项是会包含主题词的。

  (2)主题句往往在全文开头出现,通常标志分别为:1全文开头作者明确下结论、表立场的句子; 2全文开头引言后的解释;3全文开头转折后的理论观点;4全文开头故事背景后引出的第一个理论观点

  例文1:06年1月

  “Humans should not try to avoid stress any more than they would shun food, love or exercise.” Said Dr. Hans Selye, the first physician to document the effects of stress on the body. While here’s on question that continuous stress is harmful, several studies suggest that challenging situations in which you’re able to rise to the occasion can be good for you. 主题句
In a 2001 study of 158 hospital nurses, those who faced considerable work demands but coped with the challenge were more likely to say they were in good health than those who felt they couldn’t get the job done.
  Stress that you can manage also boost immune (免疫的) function. In a study at the Academic Center for Dentistry in Amsterdam, researchers put volunteers through two stressful experiences. In the first, a timed task that required memorizing a list followed by a short test, subjects through a gory (血淋淋的) video on surgical procedures. Those who did well on the memory test had an increase in levels of immunoglobulin A, an antibody that’s the body’s first line of defense against germs. The video-watchers experienced a downturn in the antibody.
  Stress prompts the body to produce certain stress hormones. In short bursts these hormones have a positive effect, including improved memory function. “They can help nerve cells handle information and put it into storage,” says Dr. Bruce McEwen of Rockefeller University in New York. But in the long run these hormones can have a harmful effect on the body and brain.
  “Sustained stress is not good for you,” says Richard Morimoto, a researcher at Northwestern University in Illinois studying the effects of stress on longevity, “It’s the occasional burst of stress or brief exposure to stress that could be protective.”

  1. The passage is mainly about ___A___.
  A) the benefits of manageable stress
  B) how to cope with stress effectively
  C) how to avoid stressful
  D) the effect of stress harmonies on memory

  分析:综合各段开头反复重现的成分既为主题词,stress,不包含主题词的优先排除,四选项全部包含,转而查找主题句,文章开头出现引言,引言后的解释句中出现several studies suggest明确的结论性表达,引导全文主题的出现,A选项为文章主题句的同义改写,manageable对应rise to,benefits对应be good for。BC选项都以how to开头,而原文中并未提出解决方法,因此排除。D选项是针对第3段的细节信息,不能够概括全文,因此排除,而且请各位同学注意,D选项几乎完全照抄原文,像这样的选项在选之前请先  思考一下,这2分拿得会不会太轻松。近5年内只有06年6月24日的57题以照抄原文的形式作为正确答案,这是非常罕见的。

  总结:主旨题正确选项一定包含主题词,对主题句同义改写,照抄原文的选项通常不正确。

  2、细节题:考察对文章中重要细节的把握

  标志:题干较长,包含很多细节信息。

  解答细节题关键抓三点:关键词定位、重要考点定位、顺序原则。

  细节题正确选项的特点:对原文信息的同义改写:语言形式对应、含义对应。

  (1)关键词定位:利用题干中的信息回到原文中找到答案出处,题干中可作为关键词的信息通常为:1大写专有名词(人名、地名);2数字时间;3引言;4本题干中独特的名词或名词词组。

  (2)考点定位:考点是出题人重点出题的热点信息,通常为:1四种特殊语言形式:因果、并列、比较、转折;2数字串、举例前或后的结论;3结论建议性表达。

  (3)顺序原则:5道题基本按照顺序在原文中寻找答案,但主旨题永远在文章开头找答案不参与顺序原则。

  例文2:06年6月24日

  Communications technologies are far from equal when it comes to conveying the truth. The first study to compare honesty across a range of communication media has found that people are twice as likely to tell lies in phone conversations as they are in emails. The fact that emails are automatically recorded – and can come back to haunt (困扰) you – appears to be the key to the finding.
  Jeff Hancock of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, asked 30 students to keep a communications diary for a week. In it they noted the number of conversations or email exchanges they had lasting more than 10 minutes, and confessed to how many lies they told. Hancock then worked out the number of lies per conversation for each medium. He found that lies made up 14 per cent of emails, 21 per cent of instant messages, 27 per cent of face-to-face interactions and an astonishing 37 per cent of phone calls.
  His results to be presented at the conference on human-computer interaction in Vienna, Austria, in April, have surprised psychologists. 1Some expected emailers to be the biggest liars, reasoning that because deception makes people uncomfortable, the detachment (非直接接触) of emailing would make it easier to lie. 2Others expected people to lie more in face-to-face exchanges because we are most practised at that form of communication.
  But Hancock says it is also crucial 1whether a conversation is being recorded and could be reread, and2whether it occurs in real time. People appear to be afraid to lie when they know the communication could later be used to hold them to account, he says. This is why fewer lies appear in email than on the phone.
  People are also more likely to lie in real time – in a instant message or phone call, say – than if they have time to think of a response, says Hancock. He found many lies are spontaneous (脱口而出的) responses to an unexpected demand, such as: “Do you like my dress?”
  Hancock hopes his research will help companies work out the best ways for their employees to communicate. For instance, the phone might be the best medium for sales where employees are encouraged to stretch the truth. But, given his result, work assessment where honesty is a priority, might be best done using email.
  2.Hancock’s research finding surprised those who believed that __C__.

  A) people are less likely to lie in instant messages
  B) people are unlikely to lie in face-to-face interactions
  C) people are most likely to lie in email communication
  D) people are twice as likely to lie in phone conversations

  分析:以题干中的research finding结合surprised回到原文定位,因为是第2题所以按照顺序原则在文章中前部的第3段开头找到His results和surprised的对应。原文中出现some…others的搭配说明有两类psychologists,分别是email和face-to-face,在四个选项中都没有同时包含这二者的,那么就看哪个选项正确的表述了其中之一,AD因为说的是instant messages和phone首先被排除,B选项中的unlikely和原文中的lie more相对立,因此排除,C选项中的most likely对应原文中the biggest,是对原文信息的同义改写,因此正确。

  总结:文章三段中大量出现比较和因果考点,如:the biggest、reasoning、because 、easier 、lie more 、most practised,因此本段被考到的几率非常大。而且在原文中出现最高级biggest的时候,正确选项也同时出现了对应most likely,语言形式对应。注意关注文章中的重要考点,正确答案的语言形式与原文相对应。

  3. According to the passage, why are people more likely to tell the truth through certain media of communication? A

  A) They are afraid of leaving behind traces of their lies.
  B) They believe that honesty is the best policy.
  C) They tend to be relaxed when using those media.
  D) They are most practised at those forms of communication.

  分析:以题干中的tell the truth结合因果词why回到原文定位,因为是第3题所以按照顺序原则在文章中部的第4段找到be afraid to lie的对应。原文中定位句的前一句同时出现转折But、最高级crucial(the most important)考点,这正是答案出现的明确信号。定位的本句说人们 be afraid to lie也就是tell the truth是因为他们得知这个对话日后会hold them to account使得他们承担责任,这是对本段开头Hancock所提出的两个crucial最重要观点中的1 being recorded的展开解释,正确答案A选项中的leaving behind traces对应原文中的recorded。B与原文无关,CD选项是3段那两类psychologists的观点,而本题问的是According to the passage本文的观点,也就是实验的实施人Hancock的观点,CD选项尤其是D选项的错误率很高,大部分错选CD的同学都是因为审题不明确,并且是在凭借印象做题,而没有在文章中找寻明确对应。

  总结:关注文章中的重要考点,注意同义替换词的积累,在09年6月的63题中再次考到了用leave traces同义替换原文3段的recorded。重复的内容反复考,因此要求不断积累正确选项和原文之间的同义替换。

  3、语义题:考察根据上下文推断词义的能力

  标志:题干中包含明确位置,如:(Line 1, Para. 3)。

  解答语义题关键抓两点:利用并列平行结构、根据上下文的语义推断。

  语义题错误选项的特点:简单词的本意。

  (1) 简单词的本意往往为错误选项。

  例题4:05年6月

  What do the environmentalists mean by saying “Not so fast” (Line 1, Para. 3)? C
  A) Oil exploitation takes a long time
  B) The oil drilling should be delayed
  C) Don’t be too optimistic
  D) Don’t expect fast returns

  分析:题干非常简单,从字面意思上看与速度和时间有关系,AB中的takes a long time和delayed都是Not so fast的字面意思,D选项更是用fast来解释Not so fast,因此ABD同时排除,正确答案是C,与简单的题干的字面意思没有直接联系。
总结:语义题的题干如果很简单,那么正确答案就与字面意思无关。

  (2) 利用并列平行结构

  例题5:(对应例文1)

  The word “shun” (Line 1, Para. 1) most probably means ___B___.
  A) cut down on减少
  B) stay away from 远离
  C) run out of 用完
  D) put up with 忍受(B)

  分析:“Humans should not try to avoid stress any more than they would shun food, love or exercise.”在本句话中出现比较more than,把前后的内容进行对比they对应Humans,shun对应avoid,对应正确答案B,stay away from 远离。

  总结:灵活利用并列、比较等平行结构寻找对应

  (3) 根据上下文的语义推断

  例题6:2008年12月

  What does Dr. Ross Cartmill mean by “the ostrich approach” (Line 1, Para. 9)? D
  A) A casual attitude towards one’s health conditions
  B) A new therapy for certain psychological problems
  C) Refusal to get medical treatment for fear of the pain involved
  D) Unwillingness to find out about one’s disease because of fear

  分析:原文Then there is the ostrich approach. “Some men are scared of what might be there and would rather not know,” says Dr. Ross Cartmill. 关于ostrich approach的意思,需要看上下文的内容,也就是对应在后面的那句话,D选项中的Unwillingness to find out对应原文的would rather not know,fear对应scared,因此为正确答案。

  总结:语义题不是考察你是否认识这个单词,而是考察你能不能利用上下文推断出它在文章里的含义。

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