Greece, economically, is in the black. With very little to export other than such farm products as tobacco, cotton and fruit, the country earns enough from ' invisible earnings' to pay for its needed, growing imports. From the sending out of things the Greeks, earn only $285 million; from tourism, shipping and the remittances of Greeks abroad, the country takes in an additional #375 million and this washes out the almost $400 million by which imports exceed exports.
It has a balanced budget. Although more than one drachma out of four goes for defense, the government ended a recent year with a slight surplus -- $66 million. Greece has a decent reserve of almost a third of a billion dollars in gold and foreign exchange. It has a government not dependent on coalescing incompatible parties to obtain parliamentary majorities.
In thus summarizing a few happy highlights, I don't mean to minimize the vast extent of Greece's problems. It is the poorest country by a wide margin in Free Europe, and poverty is widespread. At best an annual income of $60 to $70 is the lot of many a peasant, and substantial unemployment plagues the countryside, cities, and towns of Greece. There are few natural resources on which to build any substantial industrial base. Some years ago I wrote here:
"Greek statesmanship will have to create an atmosphere in which home and foreign savings will willingly seek investment opportunities in the back ward economy of Greece. So far, most American and other foreign attempt have bogged down in the Greek government's red tape and shrewdness about small points."
Great strides have been made. As far back as 1956, expanding tourism seemed a logical way to bring needed foreign currencies and additional jobs to Greece. At that time I talked with the Hilton Hotel people, who had been examining hotel possibilities, and to the Greek government division responsible for this area of the economy. They were hopelessly deadlocked in almost total differences of opinion and outlook.
Today most of the incredibly varied, beautiful, historical sights of Greece have new, if in many cases modest, tourist facilities. Tourism itself has jumped from approximately $31 million to over $90 million. There is both a magnificent new Hilton Hotel in Athens and a completely modernized, greatly expanded Grande Bretagne, as well as other first-rate new hotels. And the advent of jets has made Athens as accessible as Paris or Rome – without the sky-high prices of traffic-choked streets of either.
1. The title below that best expresses the ideas of this passage is
[A] Greek income and expenditures.
[B] The improving economic situation in Greece.
[C] The value of tourism.
[D] Military expenditures.
2. Many peasants earn less than
[A] $60 a week.
[B] $2 a week.
[C] $1 a day.
[D] $10 a month.
3. The Greek Government spends
[A] more than 25%of its budget on military terms.
[B] More than its collects.
[C] A third of a billion dollars in gold.
[D] Less than 25% of its budget on military terms.
4. According to the passage, Greece has
[A] a dictatorship.
[B] a monarchy.
[C] a single majority party.
[D] too much red tape.
5. Greece imports annually goods and materials
[A] totaling almost $700 million.
[B] that balance exports.
[C] that are paid by tourists.
[D] costing $66 million.
1. B 希腊经济形式的改善。文章围绕这一中心而写。文章一开始就提出希腊出口除了农产品之外，没有什么东西，而无形资产如旅游、运输和国外的汇款等可挣得37500万美元。两项加在一起来抵消入超赤字近4亿美元，稍有结余。第三段指出，希腊是自由欧洲最穷的国家，许多农民年收入为60-70美元。失业现象席卷城市乡镇，建立工业基地的自然资源极少。政府的繁琐事务程序，关注琐事等情况使美国和其他国家试图展开工作陷于停滞状态。第四段开始指出1956年起开拓旅游业，不过意见还是分歧。第五断提出今天惊人的变化，美丽的历史古城呈现新貌，就旅游一项收入由3100万增至9000万美元。旅馆面貌大变。A.希腊的收支。C.旅游的价值。D.军事费用。
2. B 少于2美元一星期。文章第三段第三句：最佳情况，年收入为60-70美元使大多数农民的份额。所以B项最接近年收入。A.60美元一星期。C.一天一美元。D.一个月10美元。
3. A 百分之25以上用于军事。第二段：虽然四个德拉克马中有一个用于国防，政府最终还稍有结余――6600万美元。B.比收入的还多。C.十亿金子中的三分之一。D.少于百分之25。
4. C 单一大党。第二段：希腊的政府不依靠水火不相容的政党之间的合作来取得一会的多数席位，这说明是单一大党。A.独裁、专政。B.君主政体。D.太多的繁琐程序。
5. A 总计几乎在7亿美元左右。第一段中提到希腊出口商品价值28500万美元，而进口超出出口4亿美元。两者相加为6亿2千5百万美元，相当于几乎在7亿美元左右。B.和出口平衡。C.由旅游者支付。D.花费6600万美元。
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