2020年9月大学英语四级考试长篇阅读模拟题(7)

2020-07-22 14:11:00来源:网络

  新东方在线英语四级频道为备考英语四级的同学们整理了2020年9月大学英语四级考试长篇阅读模拟题,希望可以为大家带来帮助。

  2020年9月大学英语四级考试长篇阅读模拟题(汇总)

  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.

  You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

  Addicted, Really?

  A. Mental-health specialists disagree over whether to classify compulsive online behaviour as addiction---and how to treat it. Craig Smallwood, a disabled American war veteran, spent more than 20,000 hours over five years playing an online role-playing game called "Lineage II". When NCsoft, the South Korean firm behind the game, accused him of breaking the game's rules and banned him, he was plunged into depression, severe paranoia (偏执) and hallucinations (幻想). He spent three weeks in hospital. After that, he sued NCsoft for fraud and negligence (过失 ), demanding over $ 9m in damages and claiming that the company acted negligently by failing to warn him of the danger that he would become "addicted" to the game.

  B. But does it make sense to talk of addiction to online activity? Mental-health specialists say three online behaviors can become problematic for many people: video games, pornography ( 色情作品 ) and messaging via e-mail and social networks. But there is far less agreement about whether any of this should be called "Internet addiction"--or how to treat it.

  C. Some mental-health specialists wanted "Internet addiction" to be included in the fifth version of psychiatry's bible, the"Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", known as DSM-V, which is currently being overhauled (全面修订). The American Medical Association endorsed (赞成) the idea in 2007, only to backtrack( 放弃) days later. The American Journal of Psychiatry called Internet addiction a "common disorder" and supported its recognition. Last year the DSM-V drafting group made its decision: lnteruet addiction would not be included as a "behavioral addiction"--only gambling made the cut--but it said further study was necessary.

  D. Skeptics say there is nothing uniquely addictive about the Internet. Back in 2000, Joseph Walther, a communications professor at Michigan State University, co-wrote an article in which he suggested, tongue in cheek, that the criteria used to call someone an Internet addict might also show that most professors were "addicted" to academia (学术活动). He argued that other factors, such as depression, are the real problem.

  He stands by that view today. "No scientific evidence has emerged to suggest that lnternet use is a cause rather than a consequence of some other sort of issue," he says. "Focusing on and treating people for Internet addiction, rather than looking for underlying clinical issues, is definitely unwise."

  E. Others disagree. "That would be wrong," says Kimberly Young, a researcher and therapist who has worked on Interact addiction since 1994. She insists that the Internet, with its powerfully immersive environments, creates new problems that people must learn to navigate(应对). Otherwise, the changing lifestyle will affect the development of the society.

  F.No one disputes that online habits can turn toxic. Take South Korea, where widespread broadband means that the average high-school student plays video games for 23 hours each week. In 2007 the government estimated that around 210,000 children needed treatment for Internet addiction. In 2010 newspapers around the globe carried the story of a South Korean couple who fed their infant daughter so little that she starved to death. Instead of caring for the child, the couple spent most nights at an Internet cafe, sinking hours into a role- playing game in which they raised, fed and cared for a virtual daughter. And several South Korean men have died from exhaustion after marathon, multi-day gaming sessions.

  G. The South Korean government has since asked game developers to adopt a gaming curfew (宵禁) for children, to prevent them playing between midnight and 8 a.m. At the same time, it has also opened more than 100 clinics for Internet addiction and sponsored an "Internet rescue camp" for serious cases.

  H. But compulsive behaviour is not limited to garners. E-mail or web-use behaviours can also show signs of addiction. Getting through a business lunch in which no one pulls out a phone to check their messages now counts as a minor miracle in many quarters. A deluge (泛滥) of self-help books, most recently "Alone Together" by Sherry Turlde, a social scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, offer advice on how to unplug (去除障碍).

  I.Pornography is hardly new, either, but the Internet makes accessing it much easier than ever before. When something can be summoned in an instant via broadband, whether it is a game world, an e-mail inbox or pornographic material, it is harder to resist. New services lead to new complaints. When online auction sites first became popular, talk of "eBay addiction" soon followed. Dr. Young says women complain to her now about addiction to Facebook--or even to "FarmVille", a game playable only within Facebook.

  J.Treatment centres have popped up around the world with the popularity of online games. In 2006 Amsterdam's Smith & Jones facility billed itself as "the first and, currently, the only residential video-game treatment program in the world". In America the reSTART Internet Addiction Recovery Program claims to treat Internet addiction, gaming addiction, and even "texting addiction". In China, meanwhile, military-style "boot camps" are the preferred way to treat Internet problems.

  K. Yet many people like feeling permanently connected. As Arikia Millikan, an American blogger, once put it, "If I could be jacked in at every waking hour of the day, I would, and I think a lot of my peers would do the, same." Bob LaRose, an Internet specialist at Michigan State University, doesn't believe her. In his research on college students, he found that most sense when they are "going overboard and restore self-control". Less than1% have a pathological(病态的) problem, he adds. For most people, Internet use "is just a habit--and one that brings us pleasure."

  46. According to Joseph Walther, it is unwise to emphasize the treatment of Internet addiction instead of seeking for potential clinical issues.

  47. As online games become popular, treatment centres have sprung up all over the world.

  48. After playing online games continuously for days, several South Korean men were exhausted to death.

  49. Smallwood sued NCsoft and claimed a huge compensation for fraud and its negligence of warning him of the danger of game addiction.

  50. In South Korea, a gaming curfew for children was adopted to prevent children playing after midnight.

  5l. Internet addiction still needs to be further studied though the DSM-V did not categorize it as a "behavioral addiction".

  52. An lnternet specialist found that most college students could realize when they are going too far and restore self-control.

  53. According to mental-health specialists, for many people, video games, pornography and messaging via e-mail and social networks can become problematic online behaviors.

  54. People regard it as a small miracle if nobody takes out a phone to read the messages at a business lunch.

  55. Kimberly Young insists that people must learn to deal with new problems brought about by the Interact.'

  【参考译文】

  真的是“上瘾”吗

  A.强迫性的上网行为是否属于成瘾行为,又该如何治疗,心理健康专家对此意见不一。Craig Smallwood是美国的一位伤残退伍军人。五年间,他花了两万多小时玩一个名为“天堂Ⅱ”的在线角色扮演类游戏。当该游戏的开发商,韩国NCsoft公司指责Craig违反游戏规则,并将他的游戏账号封停时,他突然陷入抑郁及严重的偏执和幻想之中。[49]他到医院接受了三周的治疗。在这之后,smanwood以欺诈和过失为由控告Ncsoft公司,声称该公司没有告诫他该游戏的“网瘾”危害,要求获得900多万美元的赔偿金。

  B.但是上网是否属于一种成瘾的行为呢?[53]心理健康专家认为有三种网络行为对很多人来说可能是问题性的(即容易停不下来):玩电子游戏、浏览色情作品以及通过电子邮件和社交网络收发信息。然而,关于这些网络行为是否能被称为“网瘾”,又该如何治疗,专家们远未达成一致。

  C.一些心理健康专家希望将“网瘾”列入新近正在全面修订的第五版精神病学的圣经——《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》(即第五版DSM)中。2007年,美国医学会曾一度赞成这一想法,但数天之后却改变了态度。《美国精神病学杂志》将网瘾称作一种“常见疾病”,并主张予以认定。[51]去年,第五版《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》编撰小塑决定,网瘾将不会被划入“行为成瘾”范畴——只有赌博行为被划入此列—二但是有必要对网瘾进一步展开研究。

  D.持怀疑态度的人认为,互联网并没有让人上瘾的特性。早在2000年,美国密歇根州立大学传播学教授Joseph Walther就曾在与他人合作的一篇文章中颇具讽刺性地写道,用来评价某人是“网络狂”的那个标准或许也显示了大多数的教授都是“学术狂”。Walther教授认为,诸如抑郁等其他因素才是真正的问题所在。他至今仍坚持这种观点。他说:“尚无科学依据证实网瘾是由于使用互联网,而不是由其他因素造成的。[46]如果只是关注和治疗上网成瘾,而不去寻找潜藏的临床问题,这绝对是不明智的。”

  E.也有人反对这种说法。自1994年便开始研究网瘾的研究员、心理治疗师KimbertyYoung表示:“那种说法可能有误。”[55]Young强调,互联网环境具有强大的吸引力,人们必须学会应对由其引发的新问题。否则,不断变化的生活方式将会影响社会的发展。

  F.没有人质疑习惯性上网会对人有害(这个事实)。以韩国为例,宽带的普及导致韩国的高中生平均每周玩23个小时的电子游戏。2007年,韩国政府估计有近21万的儿童需要接受网瘾治疗。2010年全球的报纸都报道了一则新闻,即一对韩国夫妻因喂养不足导致女婴被饿死。这对夫妻不照顾现实中的亲生女儿,却大多数夜晚都泡在网吧里,沉浸在一个在线喂养和照顾虚拟女儿的角色扮演游戏中。[48]另外,还有几名韩国男性多日持续沉浸于网络游戏,因疲劳过度而死亡。

  G.[50]此后,韩国政府要求游戏开发商对儿童采取网游宵禁,禁止他们在午夜到早晨8点之间玩游戏。同时,政府还开设了100家网瘾治疗诊所,并资助了针对严重病例开办的“网瘾拯救营”。

  H.但强迫性上网行为并不仅仅局限于网游玩家。使用电子邮件和浏览网页也可能表现出上瘾的迹象。[54]如果在一次商业午餐中,没有人拿出手机查看信息,那么在许多人看来这都算是个小小的奇迹。现在有许多“自救”书籍,例如美国麻省理工学院的社会学家Sherry Turkle最近就出版了一本新书《一起孤独》,书中为如何摆脱网瘾提供了建议。

  I.色情作品由来已久,但是网络让人们比以往更容易接触到色情资源。无论是游戏还是电子邮件,或是色情资源,只要是能够通过宽带网络立刻获得的东西,人们就很难抵挡其诱惑。新型服务会滋生新的问题。自网上拍卖网站开始流行后,不久“eBay上瘾”的说法就随之而来。Young医生表示,现在有很多女性向她诉苦,因为Facebook或只能在Facebook上玩的“开心农场”游戏让她们非常上瘾。

  J.[47]堕着网络游戏的流行,治疗中心在全球如雨后春笋般出现。2006年,位于阿姆斯特丹的史密斯与琼斯治疗中心成立,并自称为“目前世界上第一家、也是唯一一家寄宿式电子游戏瘾治疗中心”。美国reSTART网瘾康复项目声称能治疗网瘾、游戏瘾,甚至还有“短信瘾”。在中国,军事化管理的“训练营”成为了治疗网瘾的主要方式。

  K.然而许多人喜欢保持在线的感觉。美国的一位博主ArikiaMillikan曾经说过:“如果可以的话,我愿意在我醒着的每时每刻都在线,我相信我的很多同龄人也会这么做。”然而,美国密歇根州立大学的互联网专家BobLaRose对此表示怀疑。[52]在他对大学生展开的一项研究中,LaRose发现他们中的大多数人一旦感觉自己玩得太过火,就会恢复自控。LaRose还表示,只有不到1%的人会出现病态问题。对于大部分人来说,使用网络“只是一种习惯——并且是一种能够带来快乐的习惯”。

  【答案解析】

  46.D

  解析:题干意为,根据JosephWalther所说,只关注对上网成瘾的治疗,而不寻找其潜在的临床问题,这是不明智的。注意抓住题干中的关键信息Joseph Walther、unwise、instead of和potential clinicalissues,文中论及JosephWalther教授观点的内容出现在D段,该段倒数第二句提到,Walther教授认为尚无科学依据证实网瘾是由于使用互联网,而不是由其他因素造成的。该段最后一句则提到,Walther教授认为,如果只是关注和治疗上网成瘾,而不去寻找潜藏的临床问题,这绝对是不明智的。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为D。

  47.J

  解析:题干意为,随着网络游戏变得流行,治疗中心在全球各地不断涌现。注意抓住题干中的关键信息online games、popular和treatment centres。文中论及全球涌现治疗中心的内容出现在J段,该段首句提到,随着网络游戏的流行,治疗中心在全球如雨后春笋般出现。其中,题干中的spring up对应原文中的popup,由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为J。

  48.F

  解析:题干意为,在数日不间断地玩网络游戏之后,几名韩国男性因精疲力竭而死。注意抓住题干中的关键信息several South Korean men和exhausted。文中论及韩国人受到网瘾危害的内容出现在F段,该段第一句提到人们一致认为上网成瘾对人有害。该段最后一句则提到了几名韩国男性多日持续沉浸于网络游戏,因疲劳过度而死亡的例子。由此可知,题于是对原文的同义转述,故答案为F。

  49.A

  解析:题干意为,Smallwood以欺诈和疏于告知其可能游戏成瘾的罪名控告NCsoft公司,并索取巨额的赔偿。注意抓住题干中的关键信息Smallwood、NCsoft和fraudanditsnegligence。文中论及Smallwood的内容出现在A段,该段提到,Craig SmMlwood因违反游戏规则,被游戏开发商韩国NCsoft公司封停了游戏账号,为此他极度抑郁,并陷入严重的偏执和幻想中。该段最后一句提到,Smallwoo以欺诈和过失为由控告NCsoft公司,声称该公司没有告诫他该游戏的“网瘾”危害,要求获得900多万美元的赔偿金。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为A。

  50.G

  解析:题干意为,在韩国实行了网游宵禁,以阻止儿童在午夜之后继续玩网络游戏。注意抓住题干中的关键信息SouthKorea和gaming curfew。文中论及韩国实行网游宵禁的内容出现在G段,该段第一句提到,韩国政府要求游戏开发商对儿童采取网游宵禁,禁止他们在午夜到早晨8点之间玩游戏。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为G。

  51.C

  解析:题干意为,尽管第五版的《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》没有将网瘾归为“行为成瘾”,但是这种现象仍然需要进一步研究。注意抓住题干中的关键信息lntemet addiction、further studied和behavioraladdiction。文中论及第五版的《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》如何界定网瘾的内容出现在c段。该段最后一句提到,去年,第五版《精神疾病诊断与统计手册》编撰小组决定,网瘾将不会被划入“行为成瘾”范畴——只有赌博行为被划入此列——但是有必要对网瘾进一步展开研究。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为C。

  52.K

  解析:题干意为,一位互联网专家发现大多数学生在意识到自己玩得太过火后,就会恢复自控。注意抓住题干中的关键信息college students和restore self-control。文中论及大学生可以自控上网行为的内容出现在K段,该段第四句提到,在对大学生展开的一项研究中,BobLaRose发现他们中的大多数人一旦感觉自己玩得太过火,就会恢复自控。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为K。

  53.B

  解析:题干意为,根据心理健康专家所说,对于很多人来说,玩电子游戏、浏览色情作品以及通过电子邮件和社会网络收发信息这三种网络行为可能会成为问题。注意抓住题干中的关键信息mental-healthspecialists、video games、pornography and messagin9和problematic。文中论及这一事实的内容出现在B段,该段第二句提到,心理健康专家认为有三种网络行为对很多人来说可能是问题性的(即容易停不下来):玩电子游戏、浏览色情作品以及通过电子邮件和社交网络收发信息。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为B。

  54.H

  解析:题干意为,在许多人看来,如果在一次商业午餐中,没有人拿出手机查看信息,那这简直是一个小的奇迹。注意抓住题干中的关键信息miracle、a phone和a business lunch。文中论及商业午餐的内容出现在H段。该段第三句提到,如果在一次商业午餐中,没有人拿出手机查看信息,那么在许多人看来这都算是个小小的奇迹。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为H。

  55.E

  解析:题干意为,KimbedyYoung强调人们必须学会应对互联网引发的新问题。注意抓住题干中的关键信息Kimberly Young insists、new problems和the Intemet。文中论及Kimberly Young相关观点的内容出现在E段,该段第三句提到,Youn9强调,互联网环境具有强大的吸引力,人们必须学会应对由其引发的新问题。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为E。

  2020年9月大学英语四级考试长篇阅读模拟题(汇总)

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