2020-07-22 14:11:00来源:网络



  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.

  You may choose a para'graph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

  Green Growth

  A. The enrichment of previously poor countries is the most inspiring development of our time. It is also worrying. The environment is already under strain. What willhappen when the global population rises from 7 billion today to 9.3 billion in 2050, as demographers(人口统计学家) expect, and a growing proportion of these people can'afford goods that were once reserved for the elite? Can the planet support so much economic activity?

  B .Many policymakers adopt a top-down and Western-centfic approach to such planetary problems. They discuss ambitious regulations in global forums, or look to giant multinationals and well-heeled (富有的) NGOs to set an example. But since most people live in the emerging world, it makes sense to look at what successful companies there are doing to make growth more sustainable.

  C. A new study by the World Economic Forum (WEF) and the Boston Consulting Group (BCG) identifies 16 emerging-market firms that they say are turning eco-consciousness into a source of competitive advantage. These highly profitable companies (which the study calls "the new sustainability champions") are using greenery to reduce costs, motivate workers and forge relationships. Their home-grown ideas will probably be easier for their peers to copy than anything cooked up in the West.

  D. The most outstanding quality of these companies is that they turn limitationsof resources, labor and infrastructure) into opportunities. Thus, India's Shree Cement, which has tong suffered from water shortages, developed the world's most water-efficient method for making cement, in part by using air-cooling rather than water-cooling. Manila Water, a utility in the Philippines, reduced the amount of water it was losing, through wastage and illegal tapping, from 63% in 1997 to 12% in 2010 by making water affordable for the poor.

  Broad Group, a Chinese maker of air conditioners, taps the waste heat from buildings to power its machines. Zhangzidao Fishery Group, a Chinese aquaculture (水产养殖) company, recycles uneaten fish feed to fertilize crops.

  E.Setting green goals is a common practice. Sekem, an Egyptian food producer, set itself the task of reclaiming ( 开垦) desert land through organic farming. Florida Ice & Farm, a Costa Rican food and drink company, has adopted strict standards for the amount of water it can consume in producing drinks.

  F.These firms measure themselves by their greenery, too. Florida Ice & Farm, for example, links 60% of its boss's pay to the triple bottom line of "people, planet and profit". The sustainability champions also encourage their workers to come up with green ideas. Natura, a Brazilian cosmetics company, gives bonuses to staff who find ways to reduce the firm's impact on the environment. Masisa, a Chilean forestry company, invites employees to "imagine unimaginable businesses" aimed at poorer consumers. Woolworths, a South African retailer, claims that many of its best green ideas have come from staff, not bosses.

  G.In emerging markets it is hard for companies to stick to one specialism, because they have to worry about so many wider problems, from humble infrastructure to unreliable supply chains. So the sustainability champions seek to shape the business environment in which they operate. They lobby (游说) regulators: Grupo Balbo, a Brazilian organic-sugar producer, is working with the Brazilian government to establish a certification system for organic products. They form partnerships with governments and NGOs. Kenya's Equity Bank has formed an alliance with groups such as The International Fund for Agricultural Development to reduce its risks when lending to smallholders. Natura has worked with its suppliers to produce sustainable packaging, including a new "green" plastic derived from sugar cane.

  H. The firms also work hard to reach and educate poor consumers, often sacrificing short-term profits to create future markets. Masisa organizes local carpenters into networks and connects them to low-income furniture buyers. Broad Group has developed a miniature device for measuring air pollution that can fit into mobile phones. Jain Irrigation, an Indian maker of irrigation systems, uses dance and song to explain the benefits of drip irrigation to farmers who can't read. Suntech, a Chinese solar-power company, has established a low- carbon museum to celebrate ways of reducing carbon-dioxide emissions.

  Rich became green, or green became rich?

  I.One could quibble (争辩)with BCG's analysis. Phil Rosenzweig of Switzerland's IMD business school has argued that management writers are prone to "the halo effect": they treat the temporary success of a company as proof that it has discovered some eternal principle of good management. The fact that some successful companies have embraced greenery does not prove that greenery makes a firm successful. Some firms, having prospered, find they can afford to splurge ( 挥霍) on greenery. Some successful firrns pursue greenery for public-relations purposes. And for every sustainable emerging champion, there are surely 100 firms that have prospered by belching ( 喷出 ) fumes into the air or pumping toxins into rivers.

  J.Nonetheless, the central message of the WEF-BCG study--that some of the best emerging-world companies are combining profits with greenery--is thought-provoking. Many critics of environmentalism argue that it is a rich-world luxury: that the poor need adequate food before they need super-clean air. Some even see greenery as a rich-world conspiracy ( 阴谋): the West grew rich by industrializing (and polluting ), but now wants to stop the rest of the world from following suit. The WEF-BCG report demonstrates that such fears are overblown. Emerging-world companies can be just as green as their Western rivals. Many have found that, when natural resources are scarce and consumers are cash-strapped ( 资金短缺的 ), greenery can be a lucrative(利润丰厚的) business strategy.

  46. An air-conditioner manufacturer uses the waste heat from buildings to supply its machines with power.

  47. Many critics of environmentalism hold the view that greenery is a rich-world luxury because that's not what the poor people badly want.

  48. Workers of the sustainability champions are motivated to bring forward green ideas.

  49. It is meaningful to study what successful companies in the emerging world are doing to achieve more sustainable growth, since most people live there.

  50. It's difficult for companies in emerging markets to keep focusing on one specific problem because they have many wider problems to worry about.

  51. Although some successful firms have embraced greenery, it doesn't mean that greenery will lead to the success of a firm.

  52. It will probably be easier for companies to follow the home-grown ideas than those invented in the West.

  53. It has been found that greenery can be profitable when natural resources are scarce and consumers are short of cash.

  54. Sekem, which produces food in Egypt, set a goal to reclaim desert land through organic farming.

  55. To create future markets, the firms also make effort to reach and educate poor consumers, often at the cost of short-term profits.







  E.设定环保目标是一种常见的做法。[54]埃及的一家食品生产商sekem以通过有机种植来改造沙漠化的土地为己任。哥斯达黎加的一家食品饮料公司Florida Ice&Farm,对生产饮料过程中的耗水量设定了严格的标准。


  G.[50]在新兴市场主,企业很难专注于某一特定领域,因为它们还得考虑从糟糕的基础设施到不稳定的供应链等很多更广泛的问题 。因此,可持续发展先进企业力求打造一个适合自身运营的商业环境。同时,他们还会游说监管机构,巴西的有机糖生产商Grupo Balbo正与巴西政府合作,以期建立有机产品的认证体系。它们还同各级政府和非政府组织建立合作关系。肯尼亚的Equity银行通过与国际农业发展基金会等组织联合来降低向小农贷款的风险。Natura与其供应商合作,生产可持续的包装材料,其中包括从甘蔗中提炼出来的新型“绿色”塑料。



  I.有人可能对波士顿咨询公司的分析存有异议。瑞士洛桑国际管理发展学院商学院的Phil Rosenzweig认为,管理学作家倾向于“光环效应”:他们将企业暂时取得的成功作为其发现了优质管理的永恒法则的证据。[51]一些成功的企业支持环保事业的事实并不能证明是环堡事业使这些企业取得成功,一些已经发展壮大的企业发现它们有钱做环保。还有一些成功的企业是出于公关的目的而从事环保事业。在所有这些积极倡导可持续发展的新兴企业中,肯定有100家企业是通过向大气排放废气或向河流排放有毒污水而发展起来的。






  解析:题干意为,批判环保主义的人认为,环保是发达国家才能有的奢侈品,因为那不是穷人最急需的。注意抓住题干中的关键信息critics of environmentalism和a rich.world luxury。文中J段第二句提到,许多批判环保主义的人认为,环保是发达国家才能有的奢侈品:穷人首先要解决温饱问题,然后才能谈及对超洁净空气的需求。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为J。




  解析:题干意为,研究新兴世界的成功企业为促进可持续发展做了些什么是很有意义的,因为大多数人生活在那里。注意抓住题干中的关键信息successful companies in the emerging world和sustainablegrowth。文中B段末句提到,鉴于大多数人都生活在新兴世界,因此研究一下这些国家的成功企业为促进可持续发展做了些什么是很有意义的。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为B。


  解析:题干意为,新兴市场中的企业有许多更广泛的问题需要考虑,所以它们很难持续专注于某一个特定的问题。注意抓住题干中的关键信息difficult、companiesin emergingmarkets和widerproblems。文中G段首句提到,在新兴市场中,企业很难专注于某一特定领域,因为它们还得考虑从糟糕的基础设施到不稳定的供应链等很多更广泛的问题。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为G。


  解析:题干意为,尽管一些成功的企业支持环保事业,但这并不意味着环保事业能够引领企业取得成功。注意抓住题干中的关键信息embracedgreenery和the SUCCESS ofafirm。文中I段第三句提到,一些成功的企业支持环保事业的事实并不能证明是环保事业使这些企业取得成功。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述。故答案为I。




  解析:题干意为,有人发现,当自然资源匮乏而消费者又资金短缺时,环保事业将会十分有利可图。注意抓住题干中的关键信息greenery、profitable和natural resources are scarce。文中J段末句提到,很多人发现,当自然资源匮乏而消费者又资金短缺时,环保事业不失为一项利润丰厚的企业发展战略。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为J。




  解析:题千意为,为了开拓未来市场,这些企业常常会努力接触并培养低收入消费者,而这常常以牺牲一些短期利益为代价。注意抓住题千中的关键信息futuremarkets、educatepoor consumers和short-termprofits。文中H段第一句提到,这些企业还努力接触、培养低收入消费者,时常为了开拓未来市场而牺牲短期利益。由此可知,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为H。













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