2020年9月四级语法用法辨析:定语从句

2020-08-28 14:29:00来源:网络

  新东方在线英语四级频道为备考英语四级的同学们整理了2020年9月英语四级语法用法辨析,希望可以为大家带来帮助,预祝大家高分通过大学英语四级考试

  2020年9月英语四级语法用法辨析(汇总)

  定语从句

  定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。

  关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。

  关系副词有:when, where, why等

  1. 关系代词引导的定语从句

  关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。

  1)who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:

  Is he the man who/that wants to see you?

  他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)

  He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.

  他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

  2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换),例如:

  They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down.

  那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。

  Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green.

  请递给我那本绿皮的书。

  3)which, that 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:  Aprosperity4 which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside.

  农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)

  The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped.

  你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)

  2. 关系副词引导的定语从句

  关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。

  1)when, where, why 关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用.例如:

  There are occasions5 when (on which) one must yield6. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。  Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。

  Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer?

  这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?

  2)that代替关系副词that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略.例如:

  His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born.

  他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。

  He is unlikely7 to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago.

  他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方

  3. 判断关系代词与关系副词

  方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如:

  This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.

  I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.

  习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。

  方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代词/关系副词。

  例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?

  A. where B. that  C. on which  D. the one

  例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.  A. where  B. that  C. on which  D. the one答案:

  例1 D,例2 A

  例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.

  例2变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held.

  在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。

  而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。  关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。

  4. 限制性和非限制性定语从句

  1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如:

  This is the house which we bought last month.

  这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)

  The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.

  这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)

  2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:   Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired8 last year.

  查理·史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。

  My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden.

  我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。

  This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching9.

  这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

  3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:

  He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me.

  他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。

  Liquid water changes to vapor10, which is called evaporation11.

  液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。

  说明:关系代词that和关系副词why不能引导非限制性定语从句。

  5. 介词+关系词

  1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。

  2)that前不能有介词。

  3) 某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词when 和where 互换。

  This is the house in which I lived two years ago.

  This is the house where I lived two years ago.

  Do you remember the day on which you joined our club?

  Do you remember the day when you joined our club?

  6. as, which 非限定性定语从句

  由as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句,as和which可代整个主句,相当于and this或and that。As一般放在句首,which在句中。

  As we know, smoking12 is harmful to one's health.

  The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us.

  典型例题 1)Alice received an invitation from her boss, ___came as a surprise.

  A. it  B. that  C. which  D. he

  答案C. 此为非限定性从句,不能用 that修饰,而用which.,it 和he 都使后句成为句子,两个独立的句子不能单以逗号连接。况且选he句意不通。

  2)The weather turned out to be very good, ___ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it

  答案B。which可代替句子,用于非限定性定语从句,而what不可。That 不能用于非限定性定语从句,it不为连词,使由逗号连接的两个句子并在一起在英语语法上行不通。

  3)It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.

  A. that B. which  C. as  D. it

  答案B.

  as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点:

  (1) as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。

  (2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用which.。  在本题中,prevent由于是行为动词,所以正确选项应为B。

  As 的用法

  例1. the same… as;such…as 中的as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。

  I have got into the same trouble as he (has).

  例2. as可引导非限制性从句,常含有'正如'的意思。

  As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.

  As is know, smoking is harmful to one's health.

  As是关系代词。例1中的as作know的宾语;例2中,它充当从句的主语,谓语动词know要用被动式。

  7. 先行词和关系词二合一

  1)Whoever13 spits14 in public will be punished here.   (Whoever 可以用 anyone who 代替)

  2)The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school.   (what 可以用all that代替)

  8. what/whatever;that/what; who/whoever

  1)what = the thing which;whatever = anything   What you want has been sent here.   Whatever you want makes no difference to me.

  2) who= the person that  whoever= anyone who

  (错)Who breaks the law will be punished.

  (错)Whoever robbed15 the bank is not clear.

  (对)Whoever breaks the law will be punished.

  (对)Who robbed the bank is not clear.

  3) that 和 what

  当that引导定语从句时 ,通常用作关系代词,而引导名词性从句时,是个不充当任何成分的连接词。宾语从句和表语从句中的that常可省略。What只能引导名词性从句, 用作连接代词,作从句的具体成分,且不能省略。

  I think (that) you will like the stamps.

  What we need is more practice.

  9. 关系代词that 的用法

  1)不用that的情况

  a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时。

  (错) The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here.

  b) 介词后不能用。

  We depend on the land from that we get our food.(错)

  改为:We depend on the land from which we get our food.

  We depend on the land that/which we get our food from.

  2) 只能用that作为定语从句的关系代词的情况

  a) 在there be 句型中,只用that,不用which。

  b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。

  c) 先行词有the only, the very修饰时,只用that。

  d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that。

  e) 先行词既有人,又有物时,只用that。

  例如:  All that is needed is a supply of oil.

  所需的只是供油问题。

  Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police.

  那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。

  1.She heard a terrible noise,____brought her heart into ber mouth.(MET'91)

  A.it B.which C.this D.that

  选B.在非限定性定语从句中,关系代词用which不能用that。

  2.He paid the boy $ 10 for washing ten wiondows, most of____hadn't cleaned for at least a y ear.(MET'90)

  A.these B.those C.that D.which

  选D.如果选A、B、C,整个句子不符合语法要求,因为有一个"逗号",不是并列句,因此只能是一 个非限定性定语从句,在非限定性定语从句中关系代词一般用which。

  3.His parents wouldn't marry anyone____family was poor.(MET'88)

  A.of whom B.whom c.of whose D.whose

  选D.因为whose作family的定语。

  4.Finally the thief handed in everything____he had stolen to the police.(MET'87)

  A.after B.what C.whatever D.that

  选D.因为A、B、C不能引导定语从句。先行词everything,关系代词that在从句中作宾语。当先行词 是不定代词all,anything,nothing,everything,something等,关系代词只能由that引导。

  5.All____is needed is a supply of oil.(MET'89)

  A.the thing B.that C.what C.which

  选B.All作先行词,关系代词由that引导。

  6.In fact the Swede did not understand the three questions____were asked in French.(85年 )

  A.where B.who C.in which D.which

  选D.question是先行词,在从句中作主语,所以应用which引导。

  7.The man____talked to you just now is an engineer.(80年)

  A.who B.where C.which D.what

  选A.先行词是man。在从句中作主语,所以选who。

  8.The word"write"has the same pronunciation____the work"right". (84年)

  A.of B.as C.to D.from

  选B.先行词中含有such,the same时,或先行词被such,the same修饰时, 关系代词用as引导。

  9.Watch the girl and her dog____are crossing the bridge.

  A.which B.who C.they D.that

  选D.当先行词含有"人"和"物"时,关系代词用that。

  10.This dictionary,a few pages____are missing,is of no use.

  A.among which B.of which C.which D.in which

  选B.dictionary是先行词,which是关系代词,a few pages of which(diciotnary)。

  11.You may take____book you like.

  A.which B.only c.whichever D.what

  选C.复合关系代词本身兼有先行词。whichever=anything that,whatever=anything that,whoever=any one who,whomever=anyone whom,whosever=anyone whose。

  12.This is the best dictionary____I've ever bought.

  A.with which B.that C.which D.when

  选B.先行词是dictionary,因为先行词前有最高级、序数词、only,very,any 等修饰时,关系代词用tha t。

  13.I still remember the day____I first came to Beijing.

  A.which B.that C.when D.where

  选C.先行词the day,在定语从句中作状语,所以选when。当先行词是时间名词或地点名词时,关系词选 用when或where,that或which,主要取决于在定语从句中所作成份,如果作宾语,用that或which,作状语用wh en或where。

  如:

  (1)I still remember the days that/which we spent in the countryside.

  先行词是the days,spent是及物动词,that/which作spent的宾语。

  (2)This is the place where I lived three years ago.

  先行词是place,lived是不及物动词,where在从句中作状语。

  (3)This is the place that/which we visited three years ago.

  先行词是place,visited是及物动词,that/which在从句中作宾语。

  14.____,Charles Dickens was an English writetr.

  A.It's knownn to all B.It's known16 that C.We all know D.As isknown to all

  选D.as引出非限定性定语从句,表示"正如……那样”。类似的还有:asyou know,as you see,as can be known,as has been pointed17 out,as is known to all等。

  15.I don't like the way____you laughed at her.

  A.which B.in that C.where D.that

  选D.先行词是the way,表示方式,可用that(可省)或in which来引导一个定语从句。如果先行词是时 间或原因,也可用that(可省)或when或why来引导定语从句。如:

  (1)This was the reason that/why he was late yesterday.

  (2)This is the last time that I shall give you a lesson.

  2020年9月英语四级语法用法辨析(汇总)

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