2022-01-26 10:04:00来源:网络


  Section B

  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived.

  You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.

  A University Degree No Longer Confers Financial Security

  A.Millions of school-leavers in the rich world are about to bid a tearful goodbye to their parents and start a new life at university. Some are inspired by a pure love of learning. But most also believe that spending three or four years at university--and accumulating huge debts in the process--will boost their chances of landing a well-paid and secure job.

  B.Their elders have always told them that education is the best way to equip themselves to thrive in a globalised world. Blue-collar workers will see their jobs outsourced and automated, the familiar argument goes. School dropouts will have to cope with a life of cash-strapped (资金紧张的) insecurity. But the graduate elite will have the world at its feet. There is some evidence to support this view. A recent study from Georgetown University's Centre on Education and the Workforce argues that"obtaining a post-secondary credential ( 证书) is almost always worth it." Educational qualifications are tightly correlated with earnings: an American with a professional degree can expect to pocket $3.6m over a lifetime; one with merely a high- school diploma can expect only $1.3m. The gap between more- and less-educated earners may be widening. A study in 2002 found that someone with a bachelor's degree could expect to earn 75% more over a lifetime than someone with only a high-school diploma. Today the disparity is even greater.

  C.But is the past a reliable guide to the future? Or are we at the beginning of a new phase in the relationship between jobs and education? There are good reasons for thinking that old patterns are about to change--and that the current recession-driven downturn (衰退) in the demand for Western graduates will morph (改变) into something structural. The strong wind of creative destruction that has shaken so many blue-collar workers over the past few decades is beginning to shake the cognitive elite as well.

  D.The supply of university graduates is increasing rapidly. The Chronicle of Higher Education calculates that between 1990 and 2007 the number of students going to university increased by 22% in North America, 74% in Europe, 144% in Latin America and 203% in Asia. In 2007 150m people attended university around the world, including 70m in Asia. Emerging economies—specially China--are pouring resources into building universities that can compete with the elite of America and Europe. They are also producing professional- services firms snch as Tata Consulting Services and Infosys that take fresh graduates and turn them into world-class computer programmers and consultants. The best and the brightest of the rich world must increasingly compete with the best and the brightest from poorer countries who are willing to work harder for less money.

  E. At the same time, the demand for educated labor is being reconfigured (重新配置) by technology, in much the same way that the demand for agricultural labor was reconfigured in the 19th century and that for factory labor in the 20th. Computers can not only perform repetitive mental tasks much faster than human beings. They can also empower amateurs to do what professionals once did: why hire a flesh-and-blood accountant to complete your tax return when Turbotax (a software package ) will do the job at a fraction of the cost? And the variety of jobs that computers can do is multiplying as programmers teach them to deal with tone and linguistic ambiguity.

  F.Several economists, including Paul Krugman, have begun to argue that post-industrial societies will be characterized not by a relentless rise in demand for the educated but by a great "hollowing out", as mid-level jobs are destroyed by smart machines and high-level job growth slows. David Autor, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), points out that the main effect of automation in the computer era is not that it destroys blue-collar jobs but that it destroys any job that can be reduced to a routine. Alan Blinder of Princeton University, argues that the jobs graduates have traditionally performed are if anything more "offshorable" than low-wage ones. A plumber or lorry-driver's job cannot be outsourced to India. A computer programmer's can.

  G. A university education is still a prerequisite for entering some of the great industries, such as medicine, law and academia (学术界), that provide secure and well-paying jobs. Over the 20th century these industries did a wonderful job of raising barriers to entry--sometimes for good reasons (nobody wants to be operated on by a barber) and sometimes for self-interested ones. But these industries are beginning to bend the roles. Newspapers are fighting a losing battle with the blogosphere. Universities are replacing tenure-track professors with non-tenured staff. Law firms are contracting out routine work such as"discovery" (digging up documents relevant to a lawsuit) to computerized-search specialists such as Blackstone Discovery. Even doctors are threatened, as patients find advice online and treatment in Walmart's new health centers.

  H.Thomas Malone of MIT argues that these changes--automation, globalizafion and deregulation--may be part of a bigger change: the application of the division of labor to brain-work. Adam Smith's factory managers broke the production of pins into 18 components. In the same way, companies are increasingly breaking the production of brain-work into ever tinier slices. TopCoder chops up IT projects into bite-sized chunks and then serves them up to a worldwide workforce of freelance coders.

  I.These changes will undoubtedly improve the productivity of brain-workers. They will allow consumers to sidestep (规避 ) the professional industries that have extracted high rents for their services. And they will empower many brain-workers to focus on what they are best at and contract out more tedious tasks to others. But the reconfiguration of brain-work will also make life far less cozy and predictable for the next generation of graduates.

  46. The creative destruction that has happened to blue-collar workers in the past also starts to affect the cognitive elite.

  47. For the next generation of graduates, life will be far less comfortable and predictable with brain-work reconfigured.

  48. After computers are taught by programmers to deal with tone and linguistic ambiguity, the variety of jobs they can do will increase dramatically.

  49. Most school-leavers believe that, despite the huge debts they owe, going to university will increase their chances of getting secure jobs with high salaries.

  50. Modern companies are more likely to break the production of intellectual work into ever tinier slices.

  51. A scholar of Princeton University claims that the jobs traditionally taken by graduates are more likely to be offshored than low-wage ones.

  52. The income gap between an American professional degree holder and an American high-school graduate shows income is closely related to educational qualifications.

  53. The changes in the division of brain-work will save consumers some high service fees the professional organizations charge.

  54. Some students have always been told that. to achieve success in a globalised world, it is most advisable to equip themselves with education.

  55. Emerging economies are providing a lot of resources to build universities to compete with the elite of America and Europe.










  H.麻省理工大学的ThomasMalone表示,自动化、全球化和自由化这些变化也许只是更大变革——将劳动分工引入到脑力工作中——的冰山一角。Adam Smith的工厂管理者将大头针的生产线分成了十八道工序。[50]同样:如今的企业将脑力工作划分得超乎以往地细致。TopCoder公司将IT项目分割成块,然后把这些工作分摊给全球的自由程序员。




  解析:题干意为,过去发生在蓝领工人身上的创造性毁灭,现在也开始对文化精英造成影响了。根据题干中的关键信息creative destruction、blue—collar和cognitive elite,便可以很快锁定文中C段。C段最后一句提到,在过去几十年里曾经导致很多蓝领工人失去饭碗的创造性毁灭的风暴,现在也开始撼动文化精英了。由此可知,题干是原文的同义转述,故答案为C。


  解析:题干意为,对下一代毕业生来说,由于脑力工作重新整合,他们的生活将会更加艰辛和变幻莫测。注意抓住题干中的关键信息for tlle next generation of graduates和predicmble。文中I段最后一句提到,但是,这种脑力工作的重新整合将使下一代毕业生的生活更加艰辛,也更加变幻莫测。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述。故答案为I。


  解析:题干意为,当程序员教会了电脑处理音调和语言歧义问题后,电脑能够完成的工作种类将显著增多。注意抓住题干中的关键信息toneandlinguistic ambiguity和mevariety ofjobs。文中E段最后一句提到,当程序员使电脑能够处理音调和语言歧义的问题后,电脑能够完成的工作类别将会激增。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为E。


  解析:题干意为,多数毕业生认为,尽管会欠下很多债务,但是上大学会使他们更有可能获得一份薪水较高的稳定工作。注意抓住题干中的关键信息sch001.1eavers、huge debts和chances。文中A段末句提到,大多数毕业生都这样认为:在大学里待三四年可以大大增加他们获得高薪、稳定工作的几率,尽管在这个过程中会欠下很多债务。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为A。


  解析:题干意为,企业越来越倾向于将脑力工作划分得超乎以往地细致。注意抓住题干中的关键信息companies和evertinier slices。文中论及脑力工作分工的内容出现在H段,该段第三句提到,同样,如今的企业将脑力工作划分得超乎以往地细致。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为H。




  解析:题干意为,一位拥有专业学位的美国人和仅有高中文凭的美国人之间的收入差距表明,收入与学历息息相关。注意抓住题干中的关键信息gap、professional degree、high—school和educational qualifications。文中论及收入差距的内容出现在B段,该段第七句提到,学历与收入多少息息相关:一位拥有专业学位的美国人有望在一生中赚到360万美元,而若是仅有高中文凭则只能赚到130万。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为B。




  解析:题干意为,学生们常常被告知,要想在这个全球化的世界中取得成功,最好的办法就是努力学习。注意抓住题干中的关键信息a globalised world、equip themselves和education。文中B段第一句提到,长辈们常常告诫他们,在这个全球化的世界中,要想使自己有所发展,最好的办法就是努力学习。由此可见。题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为B。


  解析:题干意为,新兴经济体正在为建设大学提供大量的资源,以便能与美国和欧洲的顶级学府一争高下。注意抓住题干中的关键信息emerging economies、resources和me elite of America and Europe。文中D段第四句提到,新兴经济体,尤其是中国,倾注了众多资源来建设能与美国和欧洲的顶级学府一争高下的大学。由此可见,题干是对原文的同义转述,故答案为D。





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