2022年12月英语四级阅读理解练习材料(7)

2022-08-17 08:08:00来源:网络

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  2022年12月英语四级阅读理解练习材料(7)

  Passage7

  For some time past it has been widely accepted that babies-and other creatures-learn to do things because certain acts lead to “rewards”; and there is no reason to doubt that this is true. But it used also to be widely believed that effective rewards, at least in the early stages, had to be directly related to such basic physiological(生理的)“drives” as thirst or hunger. In other words, a baby would learn if he got food or drink or some sort of physical comfort, not otherwise.

  It is now clear that this is not so. Babies will learn to behave in ways that produce results in the world with no reward except the successful outcome.

  Papousek began his studies by using milk in the normal way to “reward” the babies and so teach them to carry out some simple movements, such as turning the head to one side or the other. Then he noticed that a baby. Who had had enough to drink would refuse the milk but would still go on making the learned response with clear signs of pleasure. So he began to study the children’s responses in situations where no milk was provided. He quickly found that children as young as four months would learn to turn their heads to right or left if the movement “switched on” a display of lights-and indeed that they were capable of learning quite complex turns to bring about this result, for instance, two left or two right, or even to make as three turns to one side.

  Papousek’s light display was placed directly in front of the babies and he made the interesting observation that sometimes they would not turn back to watch the lights closely although they would “smile and bubble” when the display came on. Papousek concluded that is was not primarily the sight of the lights which pleased them, it was the success they were achieving in solving the problem, in mastering the skill, and that there exists a fundamental human urge to make sense of the world and bring it under intentional control.

  26. According to the author ,babies learn to do things which___________

  A) are directly related to pleasure B) will meet their physical needs

  C) will bring them a feeling of success D) will satisfy their curiosity

  27. papousek noticed in his studies that a baby_______________

  A) would make learned responses when it saw the milk

  B) would carry out learned movements when it had enough to drink

  C) would continue the simple movements when it had enough to drink

  D) would turn its head to right or left when it had enough to drink

  28. In papousek’s experiment babies make learned movements of the head in order to _________

  A) have the lights turned on B) please their parents

  C) be rewarded with milk D) be praised

  29. The babies would “smile and bubble” at the lights because__________-

  A) the lights were directly related to some basic “drives”

  B) the sight of the lights was interesting

  C) they need not turn back to watch the lights

  D) they succeeded in “switching on ”the lights

  30. According to Papousek, the pleasure babies get in achieving something is a reflection of_____

  A) a basic human desire to understand and control the world

  B) the satisfaction of certain physiological needs

  C) their strong desire to solve complex problems

  D) a fundamental human urge to display their learned skills

  Passage 7

  在过去的一段时间里,这样一种理论为人们广泛接受,婴儿——还有其他生物——学习去做事情是因为某些特定的行为有“回报”;而且毫无疑问这是事实。但人们还曾普遍认为,有效的回报,至少在早期,必定是与基本生理“驱动力”直接相关,比如口渴或饥饿。换句话说,婴儿会为食物、料或某种身体上的舒适而学习,不会是为其它。

  现在人们已经清楚,并非如此。(26)婴儿会学习以某种方式行事,除了为成功的结果以外,还会为没有回报的后果而行事。

  Papousek是这样开始进行研究的:他用牛奶以及通常的方式“回报”婴儿,想以此教会他们做一些简单的动作,比如把头转到一侧或另一侧。后来他发现有一个已经吃饱了奶的婴儿,不愿再要牛奶,却显然很乐意继续做出学会的反应。(27)于是他开始研究在没有牛奶的情况下婴儿的瓜。他很快发现甚至只有4个月大的婴儿也能学会将头左右转动,(28)只要这动作能“打开开关”。用灯光指示——事实上他们还可以学会相当复杂的转头来得到这种效果,比如说,两下左两下右。或者甚至是向一侧连转三下。

  Papousek在婴儿的正前方放置灯,他发现了有趣的事情,有时婴儿并不会转回去近看这些灯,虽然当灯打开的时候,他们会“微笑并且嘴里咿呀作响”。Papousek得出结论,(29)他们并不是主要因为看到灯光而高兴,而是为他们在解决问题时的成功,对技巧的熟练掌握,以及(30)一种人类基本的渴望,要弄清这世界的意义并使之在有意识的控制之下。

  26、根据本文作者所说,婴儿会学做________的事。

  A)与欢乐直接相关          B)会满足他们身体需要

  C)带给他们成功感          D)满足他们好奇心

  27、Papousek在其研究中注意到,婴儿________-

  A)在看到牛奶时会做出学会的反应   B)在有足够饮料时会做出学会的动作

  C)没有牛奶也可以继续简单的动作   D)在有足够饮料时会把头左右转动

  28、在Papousek的实验中,婴儿做出学会的头部动作是为了_________

  A)让灯打开             B)得到牛奶回报

  C)让其父母高兴           D)被表扬

  29、婴儿会对灯光“微笑并且嘴里咿呀作响”是因为_________-

  A)灯光与某些基本“驱动力”直接相关

  B)看到灯光很有趣          C)他们不需要转回去开灯

  D)他们成功地“打开了”灯光的“开关”

  30、根据Papousek,婴儿做成某件事的喜悦反映了_________

  A)一种人类基本的渴望,要了解并控制世界

  B)对某种生理需求的满足

  C)他们解决复杂问题的强烈愿望

  D)显示所学到技巧的人类基本愿望

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