Part A: 选词填空
Millions die early from air pollution each year. Air pollution costs the global economy more than $5 trillion annually in welfare costs, with the most serious 26.______ occurring in the developing world. The figures include a number of costs 27.______ with air pollution. Only considering lost income alone amounts to $225 billion a year.
The report includes both indoor and outdoor air pollution. Indoor pollution, which includes 28.______ like home heating and cooking, has remained 29.______ over the past several decades despite advances in the area. Levels of outdoor pollution have grown rapidly along with rapid growth in industry and transportation. Director of Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Chris Murray 30.______ it as an “urgent call to action.” “One of the risk factors for premature deaths is the air we breathe, over which individuals have little 31.______,” he said.
The effects of air pollution are worst in the developing world, where in some places lost labor income 32.______ nearly 1% of GDP. Around 9 in 10 people in low and middle income countries live in places where they 33.______ experience dangerous levels of outdoor air pollution.
But the problem is not limited 34.______ to the developing world. Thousands die prematurely in the U.S. as a result of related ailments. In many European countries, where diesel 35.______ have become more common in recent years, that number reaches in the tens of thousands.
26. [F] damage
解析：“Air pollution costs the global economy more than $5 trillion annually in welfare costs, with the most serious ______ occurring in the developing world”;由最高级限定“the most serious”可知此处为名词且内容应与前半句性质相同，联系句义选项[F]damage符合。
27. [B] associated
解析：“The figures include a number of costs ______ with air pollution”;此处选词需与介词with搭配，联系上下文，figures指代全球空气污染相关的花费数据，选项[B]associated符合句义。
28. [M] sources
解析：“Indoor pollution, which includes ______ like home heating and cooking,…”;由介词like可知home heating与cooking为空格处选词的举例，联系indoor pollution与home heating / cooking的关系，可知此处[M]sources符合。
29. [D] constant
解析：“…, has remained ______ over the past several decades despite advances in the area”;由despite可知空格处选词与后文advances成转折逻辑，且后文outdoor pollution部分描述的是污染趋势(have grown rapidly)，联系动词remain的词义与常见搭配，选项[D]constant符合句义。
30. [G] described
解析：“Chris Murray ______ it as an ‘urgent call to action’”;空格处应为谓语动词，联系介词as的搭配及后文引用(an “urgent call to action”)，可知此处应选[G]described。
31. [E] control
解析：“…the air we breathe, over which individuals have little ______”;由have little可知空格处选词应为不可数名词且能与从句提前的介词over搭配，联系上下文还原从句“have little ____ over the air we breathe”，可知选项[E]control符合句意。
32. [H] equals
解析：“…, where in some places lost labor income ______ nearly 1% of GDP”;联系上下文可知此句由“lost labor income”与“nearly 1% of GDP”之间的关系描述空气污染带来的损失之严重，选项[H]equals符合。
33. [K] regularly
解析：“where they ______ experience dangerous levels of outdoor air pollution”;空格处选词应为副词性，且此句依然在叙述发展中国家所面对的污染情况之严重，理解句义，选项[K]regularly符合。
34. [I] exclusively
解析：“But the problem is not limited ______ to the developing world”;联系上下文，可知此处转折句义指空气污染并不只是发展中国家的问题，选项[I]exclusively符合句义。
35. [O] vehicles
解析：“…, where diesel ______ have become more common in recent years, that number reaches in the tens of thousands”;联系前文可知句中that numbers指代过早死亡(premature death)的人数，而where从句描述的是这一人数上万(reaches tens of thousands)的背景/原因，联系diesel(柴油机)词义可知此处选项[O]vehicles符合。
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