Most kids grow up learning they cannot draw on the walls. But it might be time to unlearn that training—this summer, a group of culture junkies, artists and community organizers are inviting New Yorkers to write all over the walls of an old house on Governor’s Island.
The project is called Writing On It All, and it’s a participatory writing project and artistic experiment that has happened on Governor’s Island every summer since 2013.
"Most of the participants are people who are just walking by [and are] on the island for other reasons, like they came for the jazz festival, and they just kind of stumble in," artistic director of Writing On It All, Alexandra Chasin tells Smithsonian.com.
The 2016 season runs through June 26 and features sessions facilitated by everyone from dancers to domestic workers. Each session has a theme, and participants are given a variety of materials and prompts and asked to cover surfaces with their thoughts and art. This year, the programs range from one that turns the house into a collaborative essay to one that explores the meanings of exile.
Governor’s Island is a national historic landmark district long used for military purposes. Now known as “New York’s shared space for art and play,” the island, which lies between Manhattan and Brooklyn in Upper New York Bay, is closed to cars but open to summer tourists who flock for festivals, picnics, adventures, as well as these "legal graffiti" sessions.
The notes and art scribbled on the walls are an experiment in self-expression. So far, participants have run the gammit in ages, with participants as young as 2 years old to as old as 85. Though Chasin says the focus of the work is on the activity of writing, rather than the text that ends up getting written, some of the work that comes out of the sessions have stuck with her.
"One of the sessions that moved me the most was state violence on black women and black girls," says Chasin, explaining that in one room, people wrote down the names of those killed because of it. "People do beautiful work and leave beautiful messages."
46. What does the project Writing On It All invite people to do?
【解析】由题干中的Writing ON It All 定位到第二段第一句“The project is called Writing ON It All”,其中“ the project”提示这个项目的内容在第一段;第一段“inviting New Yorkers to write all over the walls of an old house on Governor’s Island”直接对应C选项“Cover the walls of an old house with graffiti”。
47. What do we learn about the participants in the project?
【解析】由题干关键词“participants”定位到第三段第一句，“ people who are just walking by”对应选项D。
48. What did the project participants do during the 2016 season?
【解析】由题干关键词“project participants”和“the 2016 season”定位到第四段，其中“Each session has a theme”“participants are...asked to cover surfaces with their thoughts and art”对应B选项“They expressed their thoughts in graffiti on the theme of each session”。
49. What kind of place is Governor’s Island?
【解析】由题干关键词Governor's Island定位至第五段，该段第一句指出Governor's island is a national historic landmark district long used for...选项 A是对该句的改写，故为正确答案。
50. What does Chasin say about the project?
【解析】由题干关键词“Chasin”定位到最后一段，最后一段讲了对黑人女性实施暴力的例子，但只是举例，其最中心的表达应对应最后一句话“People do beautiful work and leave beautiful messages”，“messages”对应D选项“meaningful”。
Almost 8 percent of Americans 12 and older dealt with depression at some point between 2009 and 2012. With that many of us feeling blue, wouldn't it be nice if we could simply hop on the computer in our pajamas, without any of the stigma of asking for help, and find real relief?
Online programs to fight depression are already commercially available, and while they sound efficient and cost-saving, a study out of the U.K. reports that they're not effective, primarily because depressed patients aren't likely to engage with them or stick with them.
The study, which was published in The BMJ on Wednesday, looked at computer-assisted cognitive behavioral therapy and found that it was no more effective in treating depression than the usual care patients receive from a primary care doctor.
Traditional cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered an effective form of talk therapy for depression, helping people challenge negative thoughts and change the way they think in order to change their mood and behaviors. Online CBT programs have been gaining popularity, with the allure of providing low-cost help wherever someone has access to a computer.
A team of researchers from the University of York conducted a randomized control trial with 691 depressed patients from 83 physician practices across England. The patients were split into three groups: one group received only usual care from a physician while the other two groups received usual care from a physician plus one of two computerized CBT programs, either "Beating the Blues" or "MoodGYM."Participants were balanced across the three groups for age, sex, educational background, severity and duration of depression, and use of antidepressants.
After four months, the patients using the computerized CBT programs, or cCBT, had no improvement in depression levels over the patients who were only getting usual care from their doctors. "Uptake and use of cCBT was low, despite regular telephone support," the study authors wrote. Almost a quarter of participants dropped out within four months, and patients noted the "difficulty in repeatedly logging on to computer systems when they are clinically depressed."
"It's an important, cautionary note that we shouldn't get too carried away with the idea that a computer system can replace doctors and therapists," says Christopher Dowrick, a professor of primary medical care at the University of Liverpool, who wrote an accompanying editorial. "We do still need the human touch or the human interaction, particularly when people are depressed."
Being depressed can mean feeling "lost in your own little small, negative, dark world," Dowrick says. Having a person, instead of a computer, reach out to you is particularly important in combating that sense of isolation. "When you're emotionally vulnerable, you're even more in need of a caring human being," he says.
51. What does the recent study say about online CBT programs?
【解析】由题干关键词“the recent study”和“CBT”定位到第一段第二句第二段第一句。第一段第二句已给出此研究的观点即“not effective”，原因由“because”引导的内容“are not likely to engage with them or stick with them”得出，抑郁症患者不太可能参与并且坚持完全程，对应A选项“Patients may not be able to carry them through for effective cure”。
52. What has made online CBT programs increasingly popular?
【解析】由题干关键词“CBT”和“increasingly popular”定位第三段最后一句“online CBT programs have been gaining popularity”，受欢迎的因素紧随其后——“low cost help”“access to a computer”，选项C“Their easier and inexpensive access by patients”是原文的同义替换，故为答案。
53. What is the major finding by researchers at the University of York?
【解析】由题干关键词“researchers”和“the University of York”定位到第四段。第四段描述的是研究主要内容和过程，而题干问的“major finding”在第五段可以找到——“had no improvement in depression levels over the patients who were only getting usual care from their doctors”，将两种治疗方法进行对比，发现用网络CBT疗法的病人没有得到更有效的改善，所以对应选项A Online CBT programs are no more effective than regular care from p...。
54. What is Professor Dowrick’s advice concerning online CBT programs?
【解析】由题干关键词“Professor Dowrick”定位到第六段。第六段的第一句话是Dowrick教授的建议——“we shouldn’t get too carried away with the idea that a computer system can replace doctors and therapists”。教授建议不应该过于沉迷于电脑系统可以替代医生和治疗专家的观点，因此对应B选项“Their effectiveness should be not be overestimated”。
55. What is more important to an emotionally vulnerable person?
【解析】由题干关键词“emotionally vulnerable person”定位到最后一段最后一句，对“a caring human being”的需要对应D选项“Human interaction”。