2020年9月大学英语四级阅读理解100篇精析(31)

2020-08-12 14:47:00来源:网络

  新东方在线英语四级频道为备考英语四级的同学们整理了2020年9月大学英语四级阅读理解100篇精析,希望可以为大家带来帮助。

  2020年9月大学英语四级阅读理解100篇精析(汇总)

  这是篇议论文,论及科学探索的方法,总体是因果写法,具体分析又是对比写法。作者采用问答方式探究为什么希腊文明顶峰之后两千年,科技发展缓慢,而最近两百年又迅速发展超越前人,其原因在哪里?是采用新,旧方法所致,历史之偶然性,还是上天安排。

  然后以现代用归纳法,古代用演绎法太狭隘说明科学总是在观察,实验,检验,证实中前进。但事实难以解释慢和快的现象。最后以“对立”——事实和理论对立古代重视事实来解释。然这两者是对立的统一。真正的理论就是事实。事实,构成之间具逻辑联系,就具有理论的一切正面特性。这种区分虽不足以解释科学研究中真正方法,但奠定了良好的基础,含有真正方法中的重要特性。

  Method of Scientific Inquiry

  Why the inductive and mathematical sciences, after their first rapid development at theculmination of Greek civilization, advanced so slowly for two thousand years—and why in thefollowing two hundred years a knowledge of natural and mathematical science has accumulated,which so vastly exceeds all that was previously known that these sciences may be justlyregarded as the products of our own times—are questions which have interested the modernphilosopher not less than the objects with which these sciences are more immediatelyconversant. Was it the employment of a new method of research, or in the exercise of greatervirtue in the use of the old methods, that this singular modern phenomenon had its origin?Was the long period one of arrested development, and is the modern era one of normal growth?Or should we ascribe the characteristics of both periods to so-called historical accidents—tothe influence of conjunctions in circumstances of which no explanation is possible, save in theomnipotence and wisdom of a guiding Providence?

  The explanation which has become commonplace, that the ancients employed deductionchiefly in their scientific inquiries, while the moderns employ induction, proves to be toonarrow, and fails upon close examination to point with sufficient distinctness the contrastthat is evident between ancient and modern scientific doctrines and inquiries. For all knowledgeis founded on observation, and proceeds from this by analysis, by synthesis and analysis,by induction and deduction, and if possible by verification, or by new appeals toobservation under the guidance of deduction—by steps which are indeed correlative parts ofone method; and the ancient sciences afford examples of every one of these methods, or partsof one method, which have been generalized from the examples of science.

  A failure to employ or to employ adequately any one of these partial methods, animperfection in the arts and resources of observation and experiment, carelessness inobservation, neglect of relevant facts, by appeal to experiment and observation—these arethe faults which cause all failures to ascertain truth, whether among the ancients or themoderns; but this statement does not explain why the modern is possessed of a greatervirtue, and by what means he attained his superiority. Much less does it explain the suddengrowth of science in recent times.

  The attempt to discover the explanation of this phenomenon in the antithesis of “facts” and“theories” or “facts” and “ideas”—in the neglect among the ancients of the former, and their tooexclusive attention to the latter—proves also to be too narrow, as well as open to the charge ofvagueness. For in the first place, the antithesis is not complete. Facts and theories are notcoordinate species. Theories, if true, are facts—a particular class of facts indeed, generallycomplex, and if a logical connection subsists between their constituents, have all the positiveattributes of theories.

  Nevertheless, this distinction, however inadequate it may be to explain the source of truemethod in science, is well founded, and connotes an important character in true method. A factis a proposition of simple. A theory, on the other hand, if true has all the characteristics of afact, except that its verification is possible only by indirect, remote, and difficult means. Toconvert theories into facts is to add simple verification, and the theory thus acquires the fullcharacteristics of a fact.

  1. The title that best expresses the ideas of thispassage is

  [A]. Philosophy of mathematics. [B]. The RecentGrowth in Science.

  [C]. The Verification of Facts. [C]. Methods of Scientific Inquiry.

  2. According to the author, one possible reason for the growth of science during thedays of the ancient Greeks and in modern times is

  [A]. the similarity between the two periods.

  [B]. that it was an act of God.

  [C]. that both tried to develop the inductive method.

  [D]. due to the decline of the deductive method.

  3. The difference between “fact” and “theory”

  [A]. is that the latter needs confirmation.

  [B]. rests on the simplicity of the former.

  [C]. is the difference between the modern scientists and the ancient Greeks.

  [D]. helps us to understand the deductive method.

  4. According to the author, mathematics is

  [A]. an inductive science. [B]. in need of simple verification.

  [C]. a deductive science. [D]. based on fact and theory.

  5. The statement “Theories are facts” may be called.

  [A]. a metaphor. [B]. a paradox.

  [C]. an appraisal of the inductive and deductive methods.

  [D]. a pun.

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