2021年12月英语四级阅读理解真题及答案解析(卷一)

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2021年12月英语四级阅读理解真题及答案解析(卷一)

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Section A 选词填空

  The sheets are damp with sweat. You're cold, but your heart is racing as if an assailant just chased you down a dark street. It was just a nightmare, you tell yourself; there's nothing to be afraid of. But you're still filled with __26__. Given how unsettling and haunting nightmares can be, is there a way for dreamers to __27__, or even turn off, these bad dreams as they happen? Research is ___28___, but some studies suggest that people who can master lucid dreaming — that is, the ability to be __29__ that a nightmare is happening and possibly even control it without waking up — may hold the __30__. Nightmares are part of the human experience, especially for kids. Doctors ___31__ don't consider occasional nightmares a problem, but there are options for people whose nightmares occur frequently and negatively affect their lives during the day. These can be symptoms of nightmare disorder, a sleep disorder that can stem from trauma, stress and certain drugs. To treat nightmare disorder, there are a number of medications and therapies that are backed by ___32___ research, according to the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, which analyzed the available research on the treatment of nightmare disorder in a 2010 __33__ published in the Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. However, nightmares are complicated, and researchers are still struggling to understand them, said Dr. Rachel Salas, an expert on sleep disorders and an associate professor of neurology at Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore. What we do know is that people __35__ to have different kinds of nightmares at different points during the sleep cycle.

  fear

  缺名词。前文在描述nightmare“噩梦”的场景:出汗sweat弄湿了被子sheets,被行凶者assailant在漆黑的街上追赶。所以充满恐惧“fear”。

  avoid

  to 后面加动词原形,且后面有or,所以意思上并列turn off(关掉),避免avoid噩梦发生。

  limited

  主系表结构,is后加形容词。上文提出问题:人们是否可以阻止噩梦发生,此句为回答,且28空后面“but”转折——但是有人可以掌控梦境。所以28空应是否定含义,固limited(研究结果是有限的)。

  aware

  be动词后接形容词。本句是对上半句掌控梦境的继续阐述——“这种能力就是“意识到aware”梦境正在发生,继而控制梦境”。

  answer

  空前有定冠词the,后接名词。该句主语为破折号前的“people who can master lucid dreaming”,掌控梦境的人可能有这个问题的答案,固answer。

  typically

  句子成分完整,填副词。注意:typically在这里为“通常”,而非“典型”之意。通常医生不认为偶尔的噩梦是个问题。

  rigorous

  research为名词,前缺少形容词进行修饰。back在此为动词“支持”之意,疗法therapies有研究research支持,固rigorous“严谨的”符合题意。

  暂缺

  review

  前有a 2020,固缺少一个可数名词单数,后有published出版,所以应为“review报告,述评”。

  tend

  该句缺动词,且空后有to,所以需要不及物动词,tend to 固定搭配“通常,往往会”。

  Section B 段落匹配

  36-40 HECKF 41-45 IBGJD

  36. Some career women who aim high tend to feel guilty if they feel to achieve their goals.

  题干中的feel guilty是核心定位词,定位到H段,再检查题干其他信息是否也提及,比如career woman,aim high, achieve their goals, 这几点都在原文中有体现,故选H。

  36.[H] Like Ms,Li,many women try to manage the added stress to reach what Dr Joyce said was an unattainable ideal “Some professional women aim to do it all. They want to reach the top of the corporate ladder and fly like super-mom,"she said. When women don’t reach his ideal , they feel guilty; and even more stressed.

  37.The unpaid housework done by women is triple that done by men.

  题干中triple三倍和unpaid housework是核心定位词,在原文定位到E段,triple改写成了three times,housework改写成了domestic work。

  37.[E]The difference,however,is in the nature and scope of these responsibilities in the home environment in particular,“Dr. Joyce said. For example, the United Nations reported that nearly three times as much unpaid domestic work as men. The problem is, housework is often overlooked as work, even though it is often as laborious (or in some cases, more so) as any paid job.

  38. It is reported that women consistently suffer more form severe stress than men.

  题干里有对比man和woman的比较关系,再结合定位词severe stress 定位到C段。

  38.[C]It's a common story- one we frequently ridicule and readily dismiss,for example,by claiming that women tend to complain more than men,despite the growing sum of research that underlines the problem. Women are twice as likely to suffer from severe stress and anxiety as men, according to a 2016 study published in The Journal of Brain & Behavior. The American Psychological Association reports a gender gap year after year showing that women consistently report higher stress levels. Clearly, a stress gap exists.

  39.Women are advised to identify the specific causes of their stress so that steps can be taken to deal with it.

  题干的核心定位信息是找到压力的原因causes of their stress, 在K段可以好到相应的信息。

  39.[K] Disconnecting from work and home responsibilities is also obviously important .But it's much easier said than done. It is important to understand what causes your stress in the first place.

  40.One study showed that women managers often expressed positive emotions that they didn't really feel.

  题干核心定位信息一个是women managers,一个是positive emotions,在F段可以找到对应信息,原文把positive emotions改写成optimism,剩下的they didn't really feel和原文not the emotions that they were actually feeling 对应。

  40.[F] It's not just inside the home,though. Research from Nova Southeastern University found that female managers were more likely than male managers to display or forcing emotions that are not wholly felt.“They expressed optimism, calmness and empathy even when these were not the emotions that they were actually feeling,” the study said.

  41.Women tend to mistake signs of heart attacks for symptoms of stress.

  核心定位信息是heart attacks和symptoms of stress. 在I 段中出现了heart attack以及symptoms of stress, 最后确定整句话意思和原文是否合适。

  41.[I] For example, women are more likely to experience disturbed sleep, anxiety and unusual fatigue before a heart attack. Stress is so normalized, it is easy for women to shrug off those symptoms as simply the consequences of stress. Many women also do not experience chest pain before a heart attack the way men do, which leads to fewer women discovering problematic heart issues.

  42.For a time an app developer in America was so busy attending to work and family that she suffered from sleeplessness.

  题干的核心定位信息是sleeplessness和busy、work、family。在文章开头不久的B段就找到对应的信息。

  42.[B]Ms.Li said her stress led to sleeplessness. When she did sleep she experienced "problem-solving dreams”,which left her feeling unrested when she woke up. After I became a first -time mother,I quickly realized I was so busy caring for other people and work that I felt like I'd lost myself,” she said. “I’d put my own physical and mental needs on the back burner.”

  43.The emotional labor women do is noticed only when it is not done.

  题干核心定位词是emotional labor,定位到G段,本段最后和题干的意思哇安全对应上了。

  43.[G] Surface acting is a prime example of "emotional labor "a concept that the writer Jess Zimmerman made familiar in a 2015 essay. The essays parked a massive thread on the Internet community blog Meta Filter , with hundreds of women speaking up about their own experience with emotional labor: the duties that are expected of you, but go unnoticed. These invisible duties become apparent only when you don’t do them.

  44.Dr.Joyoe suggests that apart from self-care, women should seek professional support if they experience severe stress.

  题干核心定位信息是professional support和self-care,定位到J段,professional support在本段最后一句。

  44.[J]The concept of self-care is often confused with overindulging or treating yourself, but at its core, self-care is much simpler than that. “The basics of adequate sleep, healthy diet and exercise are a good place to start,” Dr. Joyce said. “Support from trusted relationships is vital, including professional support from various health and wellness providers if stress is becoming increasingly overwhelming.”

  45.Some people believe that there may not exist a stress gap between men and women.

  题干的核心信息是男人和女人之间没有stress gap, 意思是男人和女人感受到的压力没有差别。

  45.[D]The difference is not really news to me,as a clinical psychologist said Erin Joyce,a women and couples therapist in Los Angeles. “It’s been well documented in our Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, for example, that prevalence rates for the majority of the anxiety disorders are higher in women than men.” Some people may argue that this is merely reported data, and they say that many men feel the same pressures as women in terms of fulfilling responsibilities at work and home. In other words, we’re all really, really stressed.

  Section C 仔细阅读

  Passage 1

  As many office workers adapt to remote work, cities may undergo fundamental change if offices remain under-utilized. Who will benefit if working from home becomes the post-pandemic norm?

  Employers argue they make considerable savings on real estate when workers shift from office to home work. However, these savings result from passing costs on to workers.

  46. 细节理解题。根据题干关键词working from home定位到该段:Who will benefit if working from home becomes the post-pandemic norm?,之后即为答案句:Employers argue they make considerable savings on real estate when workers shift from office to home work. 选项C中employers一致;employees与workers对应;benefits… at the expense of(得益于…某方面的消费)与make considerable savings(节约大量储蓄)对应,故选C

  Though employers are backed by a chorus of remote work proselytizers, others note the loneliness,

  reduced productivity and inefficiencies of prolonged remote work.

  47. 细节理解题。根据题干关键词 oppose 定位到该段:Though employers are backed by a chorus of remote work proselytizers, others note the loneliness, reduced productivity and inefficiencies of prolonged remote work。句中though引导让步状语从句中back表示“支持”含义,根据句子结构,主句应该表示“反对”含义,主句中讨论到loneliness(孤单), reduced productivity(生产力降低) ,inefficiencies(无效率)三点缺陷,即可理解为反对的原因。选项D中negatively impacts productivity (消极地影响生产力)与reduced productivity(生产力降低)对应,故选D

  That depends on many things, but for purposes of illustration, I have run some estimates for Montreal. The exercise is simple but important, since it brings these costs out of the realm of speculation into the realm of meaningful discussion.

  48. 细节理解题。根据题干关键词run the estimates for Montreal定位到该段:That depends on many things, but for purposes of illustration, I have run some estimates for Montreal. 句子中谈论到for purposes of illustration(目的是为了说明),结合下一句:The exercise is simple but important, since it brings these costs out of the realm of speculation into the realm of meaningful discussion。选项A中provide convincing data(提供可信的数据)与bring these costs out(显示费用)对应,serious discussion(重要严肃的讨论)与meaningful discussion(重要有意义的讨论)对应,故选A

  These rough calculations show that the savings made by employers when their staff works from home are of similar magnitude to the compensation workers should receive for setting up offices at home.

  49. 细节理解题。根据题干关键词calculations定位到该段:These rough calculations show that the savings made by employers when their staff works from home are of similar magnitude to the compensation workers should receive for setting up offices at home. 选项C中 employers’ gain from remote working(雇主从远程办公获得收入)与the savings made by employers when their staff works from home(员工居家办公时雇主获得的储蓄)对应,go to(归属于)与similar magnitude to(相一致的级别)对应,employees’ compensation(员工的赔偿金)与 the compensation workers should receive…(员工应得到的赔偿金)对应,故选C

  Whatever the personal and productivity impacts of remote work, the savings of US$10,ooo per year are the employer's. In effect, this represents an offloading of costs onto employees a new type of enclosure.

  Employers offload these costs onto employees. This would be a form of expropriation, with employees absorbing production costs that have traditionally been paid by the employer. This represents a considerable transfer of value from employees to employers.

  50. 观点态度题。根据题干关键词author’s opinion on working from home,考察作者对于居家办公的态度,结合两段信息:In effect, this represents an offloading of costs onto employees a new type of enclosure. (事实上,这展示了一种新型剥夺——损失转移到员工身上);This would be a form of expropriation...(这将是一种侵占财产形式),作者对于居家办公现象持批评否定态度。选项C:It should be avoided if possible(应该尽可能避免)与文章作者对应,故选C

  Passage 2

  Why are humans so curious?

  The human craving to know and understand is the driving force behind our development as individuals and even our success as a species. But curiosity can also be dangerous, leading to stumbles or even downfalls, so why does this impulse so often compel us throughout life?

  Curiosity is so ingrained, it helps us learn as babies and survive as adults. As for the definition, there isn't one set in stone. Researchers across many disciplines are interested in curiosity, so it's no surprise there isn't a widely accepted definition of the term. William James, one of the first modern psychologists, called it "the impulse towards better cognition." Ivan Pavlov wrote that dogs (of course it was dogs) are curious about novel stimuli through the "what-is-it?" reflex that causes them to focus spontaneously on something new that comes into their environment.

  While pinning down a definition has proven tricky, "the general consensus is it's some means of information gathering," Katherine Twomey, a lecturer in language and communicative development at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom, told Live Science.Psychologists also agree that curiosity isn't about satisfying an immediate need, like hunger or thirst; rather, it's intrinsically motivated.

  Curiosity encompasses such a large set of behaviors, there probably isn’t any single "curiosity gene" that makes humans wonder about the world and explore their environment. That said, curiosity does have a genetic component. Genes and the environment interact in many complex ways to shape individuals and guide their behavior, including their curiosity.

  Regardless of their genetic makeup, infants have to learn an incredible amount of information in a short window of time, and curiosity is one of the tools humans have found to accomplish that gargantuan task."If infants weren't curious, they'd never learn anything and development wouldn't happen, Twomey said.

  Hundreds of studies show that infants prefer novelty. In a classic 1964 study, a psychologist showed that infants between 2 months and 6 months old grew less and less interested in a complex visual pattern the more they looked at it. A 1983 study in the journal Developmental Psychology of slightly older children (ages 8 months and 12 months old) indicated that once babies got used to familiar toys, they preferred new ones, a scenario that caregivers likely know all too well.

  Sometimes, however, testing out a new idea can lead to disaster. "Curiosity probably led to the vast majority of human populations going extinct," Fuentes said. For instance, the Inuit of the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska, and the Sámi people of Europe’s northern reaches have "created incredible modes to deal with the challenges" of living in northern climates, but "what we forget about are the probably tens of thousands of populations that tried and failed to make it" in those challenging landscapes, he said.

  Ultimately, curiosity is about survival. Not all curious humans lived to pass their penchant for exploration on to their descendants, but those who did helped create a species that can't help but think, "Huh, I wonder what would happen if ..."

  The human craving to know and understand is the driving force behind our development as individuals and even our success as a species. But curiosity can also be dangerous, leading to stumbles or even downfalls, so why does this impulse so often compel us throughout life?

  51.What does the author say about curiosity?

  解析:

  正确答案 B. It is the force that pushes human society forward.

  第一道题优先在文章前面的段落找答案。文章一开始在介绍curiosity好奇心的时候提到了“The human craving to know and understand is the driving force behind our development as individuals and even our success as a species.”其中craving to know and understand对应的是curiosity,后面说到好奇心是我们作为个体和人类整体发展背后的驱动力,和B选项的“It is the force that pushes human society forward”好奇心是推动人类社会进步的力量,可以同义改写。故选B。

  While pinning down a definition has proven tricky, "the general consensus is it's some means of information gathering," Katherine Twomey, a lecturer in language and communicative development at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom, told Live Science.Psychologists also agree that curiosity isn't about satisfying an immediate need, like hunger or thirst; rather, it's intrinsically motivated.

  52.What is the general understanding of the curiosity?

  A.It motivates people to seek information.

  解析:

  题干问的重点定位信息是“general understanding”,对应原文的“the general consensus大家的共识”,根据“the general consensus is it's some means of information gathering”,所以答案应该是“information gathering”,只有A选项的“seek information”能与之相对应。

  Curiosity encompasses such a large set of behaviors, there probably isn’t any single "curiosity gene" that makes humans wonder about the world and explore their environment. That said, curiosity does have a genetic component. Genes and the environment interact in many complex ways to shape individuals and guide their behavior, including their curiosity.

  53.What do we learn about how genes shape people’s behavior ?

  D. They work in conjunction with the environment.

  解析:

  题干的核心定位信息是“genes shape people's behavior”,定位到该段。具体找基因如何塑造人们的行为定位到最后一句,“Genes and the environment interact in many complex ways to shape individuals and guide their behavior, including their curiosity.”所以答案是基因和环境的相互作用,选D选项基因和环境共同起作用。

  Hundreds of studies show that infants prefer novelty. In a classic 1964 study, a psychologist showed that infants between 2 months and 6 months old grew less and less interested in a complex visual pattern the more they looked at it. A 1983 study in the journal Developmental Psychology of slightly older children (ages 8 months and 12 months old) indicated that once babies got used to familiar toys, they preferred new ones, a scenario that caregivers likely know all too well.

  54. What do numerous studies show about infants?

  B. They prefer to go after all that is novel.

  解析:

  本题题干的核心定位信息是“numerous studies,infants”,定位到本段第一句,“Hundreds of studies show that infants prefer novelty.”其中B选项的all that is novel和novelty对应,所以正确选项是B。

  Sometimes, however, testing out a new idea can lead to disaster. "Curiosity probably led to the vast majority of human populations going extinct," Fuentes said. For instance, the Inuit of the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska, and the Sámi people of Europe’s northern reaches have "created incredible modes to deal with the challenges" of living in northern climates, but "what we forget about are the probably tens of thousands of populations that tried and failed to make it" in those challenging landscapes, he said.

  55. What does the example of the Inuit people of the Arctic regions illustrate?

  A. The cost of human’s curiosity to explore.

  解析:

  本题的核心定位词是Inuit people。本道题的难点在于题目问的是Inuit people的例子证明了什么观点。这个例子是为了证明前面提及过的观点“testing out a new idea can lead to disaster”和“Curiosity probably led to the vast majority of human populations going extinct”,好奇心也有可能导致灾害、导致大规模人类灭绝。所以A选项的“cost”最能总结这个观点,人类去探索的好奇心带来的代价。


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